2007 Archive Edition - See the Archive Notice on the Project Homepage for more information.

The Ecole

The Ecole Glossary

Antipope Anacletus II

A scion of the powerful Pierleoni family, Pietro Pierleoni was the grandson of a money-lender who converted to Christianity and gained influence among the aristocracy of Rome. After having studied in Italy and France, Pietro became a monk at Cluny; Paschal II appointed him cardinal, in which office he shared the exile of Gelasius II. After the death in 1130 of Honorius II, a majority of cardinals elected Pierleoni Pope Anacletus II, and a minority had earlier elected Gregory Papareschi Innocent II. Innocent fled to France, where temporal authorities supported his claim to the throne of Peter. The Council of Étampes upheld the election of Anacletus, who was attacked because of his Jewish ancestry. The 1134 Council of Pisa, convoked by Innocent, excommunicated Anacletus, who continued, with the aid of Roger II of Sicily, to hold Rome. From 1136-37, Lothair II of the Holy Roman Empire attacked Rome and undermined popular support for Anacletus, who was suspected of wishing to turn the Church's material wealth over to the Jews. After Anacletus' death in 1138, Roger arranged the election of a successor.

Karen Rae Keck

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