2007 Archive Edition - See the Archive Notice on the Project Homepage for more information.

The Ecole

The Ecole Chronology

55 BCE: England - Julius Caesar invades Britain.

30 BCE: Italy - (- 14 CE) Augustus is the Roman Emperor.

14 CE: Italy - (-37) Tiberius is the Roman Emperor.

37 CE: Italy - (-41) Caligula is the Roman Emperor. Nero is born.

41 CE: Italy - (-54) Claudius is the Roman Emperor.

43 CE: England - Romans defeat the British under Togodumnus & Caratacus.

44 CE: Palestine - (c) Beheading of James, son of Zebedee

47 CE: England - Ostorius Scapula becomes Roman commander.

49 CE: England - Founding of Camuloanum (Colchester).

50 CE: Italy - Emperor Claudius adopts Nero.

54 CE: Italy - Agrippina has Claudius murdered. Nero becomes Emperor.

55 CE: Italy - Brittanicus is put to death.

59 CE: Italy - Nero murders Agrippina.

60 CE: England - Rebellion of Queen Boudiica

61 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Pliny the Younger is born.

61 CE: Greece - (c) Martyrdom of Barnabas

62 CE: Palestine - (c) Martyrdom of James of Jerusalem

64 CE: Italy - A fire destroys half of Rome.

65 CE: Palestine - (-80) The Didache is written.

67 CE: Italy - (c) Peter and Paul are martyred.

68 CE: Italy - Nero commits suicide (June 9th).

69 CE: England - Defeat of Queen Cartimandua of the Brigantes

69 CE: Italy - (-79) Vespian is Roman Emperor.

74 CE: England - Roman occupation of Wales begins

74 CE: Greece - Death of St. Luke

78 CE: England - Romans move into Scotland

84 CE: Asia Minor - Marcion is born in Pontus.

90 CE: England - (c) Romans begin to withdraw troops from Britain

97 CE: Asia Minor - (-109) Pliny the Younger writes nine literary books of letters. (c) Death of Timothy

100 CE: Asia Minor - Pliny the Younger writes the Panegyric on the Emperor of Trajan.

100 CE: Palestine - (c -110) Justin is born in Flavia Neopolis.

111 CE: Asia Minor - (-113) Pliny the Younger serves as governor of Bithynia.

112 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Pliny the Younger writes his tenth book of letters containing correspondence with Emperor Trajan.

113 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Pliny the Younger dies.

117 CE: Italy - (-138) Hadrian is Emperor of Rome.

121 CE: England - Hadrian visits England Beginning of construction of Hadrian's Wall

122 CE: Palestine - (-135) The Bar Kokhba Rebellion.

125 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Polycrates of Ephesus is born.

130 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Marcion leaves Pontus.

130 CE: Egypt - (-140) The Epistle of Barnabas is written.

136 CE: Italy - (c -140) Valentinus arrives in Rome. (-140) Cerdo is teaching in Rome.

138 CE: Italy - (-161) Antoninus Pius succeeds Hadrian as Emperor of Rome.

139 CE: Italy - (c) Marcus Aurelius becomes the adopted son of Antoninus Pius, thereby becoming next in line for Emperor.

140 CE: Asia Minor - (c - 160) Irenaeus of Lyons is born, probably in Smyrna.

140 CE: Italy - (c -155) Hermas writes The Shepherd. Marcion arrives in Rome. (c) Marcion meets Cerdo and becomes one of his students.

142 CE: Italy - (-155) Pius is bishop of Rome.

144 CE: Italy - Marcion is excommunicataed (July). (c) Marcion writes the Antitheses.

146 CE: Africa - (c) Septimius Severus is born at Lepcis Magna.

150 CE: Greece - (c) Clement of Alexandria is born in Athens.

155 CE: Africa - (c) Tertullian is born in Carthage.

155 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Polycarp of Smyrna is martyred.

155 CE: Italy - (c) Justin writes the Dialogue with Trypho, the Jew.

156 CE: Asia Minor - (c) The Martyrdom of Polycarp is written.

160 CE: Palestine - (c) Birth of Julius Sextus Africanus

161 CE: Italy - (-180) Marcus Aurelius succeeds Antoninus Pius as Emperor of Rome. (-166) The Parthian War.

164 CE: Italy - (-180) The Great Plague in the Roman Empire.

165 CE: Italy - (c) Justin is martyred.

166 CE: Italy - Barbarians invade Italy.

167 CE: Italy - Marcus Aurelius writes The Meditiations.

170 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Melito, bishop of Sardes, writes an Apology for Christians, addressed to Marcus Aurelius.

177 CE: Greece - (c) Athenagoras of Athens writes the Supplication for the Christians, addressed to Marcus Aurelius and his son, Commodus.

177 CE: Italy - Marcus Aurelius orders the persecution of Christians in Lyons and Vienne.

178 CE: Greece - (c) Athenagoras of Athens writes The Resurrection of the Dead.

180 CE: Egypt - (c) Pantaenus, the teacher of Clement and head of the school of Alexandria, arrives in Alexandria.

180 CE: France - (-199) Irenaeus writes Adversus haereses.

180 CE: Greece - (c) Athenagoras of Athens dies.

180 CE: Italy - (-192) Marcus Aurelius dies while away on a military expedition. His son, Commodus, becomes Emperor of Rome.

181 CE: Palestine - (c) Theophilus of Antioch writes To Autolycus.

185 CE: Egypt - (c) Origen is born in Alexandria.

188 CE: Palestine - (c) Theophilus of Antioch dies.

189 CE: Italy - (-199) Victor is bishop of Rome.

190 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Polycrates of Ephesus writes the Letter to Victor of Rome.

190 CE: Italy - (-230) The controversy over [A] Monarchianism begins.

193 CE: Africa - (c) Tertullian is converted to Christianity.

193 CE: Italy - (-211) Septimius Severus is Emperor of Rome.

195 CE: France - (c) Irenaeus writes the Proof of the Apostolic Preaching.

195 CE: Italy - Septimius Severus proclaims himself the son of Marcus Aurelius.

197 CE: Africa - (-206) The "Catholic Period" of Tertullian's writing.

199 CE: Egypt - Pantaenus dies; Clement takes over as head of the catechetical school at Alexandria.

199 CE: Italy - (-217) Zephyrinus is bishop of Rome.

200 CE: Russia - (c) End of Sarmatian rule in South Russia. Beginning of Gothic rule.

202 CE: Egypt - Origen's father, Leonidas, is martyred during the persecution of Septimius Severus. (c) Clement flees from Alexandria to Cappadocia to escape the persecution. (c) Origen castrates himself.

202 CE: France - (c) Irenaeus dies.

203 CE: Italy - Septimius Severus celebrates his tenth year in office by constructing a triumphal arch in Rome.

205 CE: Africa - (c) Cyprian of Carthage is born.

206 CE: Africa - (-212) The "Semi-Montanist Period" of Tertullian's writing.

207 CE: Africa - (-212) Tertullian writes Against Marcion, his longest work.

208 CE: England - (-211) Septimius Severus campaigns in Britain.

209 CE: England - Martyrdom of St. Alban

211 CE: England - Septimius Severus dies at York.

211 CE: Italy - (-271) Caracalla succeeds his father, Septimius Severus, as Roman Emperor.

212 CE: Egypt - (c) Origen visits Rome.

212 CE: Italy - Roman citizenship is granted to all free subjects in the Roman Empire. (c) Origen visits Rome.

213 CE: Africa - (-220) The "Montanist Period" of Tertullian's writing.

213 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Gregory the Miracle Worker is born in Neocaesarea

214 CE: Asia Minor - Clement of Alexandria dies in Cappadocia

215 CE: Italy - (c) Hippolytus writes The Apostolic Tradition.

216 CE: Egypt - Origen visits Palestine.

216 CE: Palestine - Origen visits Palestine.

217 CE: Italy - (-222) Callistus is bishop of Rome.

218 CE: Italy - (-222) Heliogabalus succeeds Caracalla as Roman Emperor.

220 CE: Asia Minor - Asia Minor is invaded by the Goths

220 CE: Egypt - (-230) Origen writes On First Principles.

221 CE: Palestine - (c) Julius Africanus completes his chronology of the world from Creation to 221.

222 CE: Italy - (-230) Urbanus succeeds Calistus as bishop of Rome. (-235) Alexander Severus succeeds Heliogabalus as Roman Emperor.

222 CE: Palestine - Death of Bardesanes

225 CE: Africa - Aggripinus assembles a council at Carthage to consider the validity of baptism by heretics.

230 CE: Italy - Pontianus succeeds Urbanus as bishop of Rome.

231 CE: Egypt - Demetrius deposes Origen from the priesthood. (-248) Heraclas heads the catechetical school at Alexandria. (c) Plotinus begins his studies with Ammonius Saccas.

231 CE: Italy - Pontianus approves the deposition of Origen.

232 CE: Egypt - Origen flees to Caesarea. Demetrius dies. Heraclas is consecrated bishop of Alexandria.

232 CE: Palestine - Origen flees from Egypt to Caesarea.

233 CE: Palestine - (-238) Gregory the Miracle Worker studies with Origen in Caesarea.

235 CE: Italy - (-238) Maximinus succeeds Alexander Severus as Roman Emperor. Hippolytus is martyred. (c) Novation writes The Trinity. (-236) Anterus succeeds Pontianus as bishop of Rome.

236 CE: Italy - (-250) Fabian succeeds Anterus as bishop of Rome.

238 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Gregory Thaumaturgus becomes bishop of the Pontus

242 CE: Egypt - (c) Plotinus joins the Persian expedition of Emperor Gordianus III before migrating to Rome.

243 CE: Italy - (c) Plotinus opens a school of philosophy in Rome.

244 CE: Italy - (-249) Philip the Arabian is Roman Emperor.

248 CE: Africa - (c) Cyprian is consecrated bishop of Carthage.

248 CE: Egypt - (-265) Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, heads the catechetical school at Alexandria.

248 CE: Palestine - Origen writes Against Celsus.

249 CE: Italy - (-251) Decius succeeds Philip as Roman Emperor.

250 CE: Italy - (-251) The Persecution of Decius.

251 CE: Africa - (-256) Cyprian of Carthage writes The Unity of the Catholic Church. Cyprian of Carthage convokes the Council of Carthage to discuss the lapsed after the Decian persecution. The final decision is reconciliation after penance. Novatian opposes the decision.

251 CE: Egypt - Antony of the Desert is born in middle Egypt.

251 CE: Italy - Decius is defeated by the Boradi and the Goths. (-253) Gallus succeeds Decius as Emperor of Rome. (-258) Novation is Anti-pope. (-253) Cornelius is bishop of Rome.

252 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage again discusses the lapsed and considers the validity of baptism by heretics.

253 CE: Italy - (-260) Valerian succeeds Gallus as Roman Emperor. (-254) Lucius succeeds Cornelius as bishop of Rome. (-270) Plotinus writes The Enneads.

253 CE: Palestine - Origen dies in Tyre.

254 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage again discusses the lapsed and considers the validity of baptism by heretics.

254 CE: Italy - Stephen succeeds Lucius as bishop of Rome.

255 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Firmilian of Caesarea writes his Letter to Cyprian.

256 CE: Africa - The Seventh Council of Carthage. Council of Carthage convened to consider the lapsed ends.

257 CE: Italy - (-258) Sixtus II succeeds Stephen as bishop of Rome.

258 CE: Africa - Cyprian of Carthage is martyred.

259 CE: Italy - (-268) Dionysius is bishop of Rome.

260 CE: Italy - (-268) Gallienus succeeds his father, Valerian, as Emperor of Rome.

262 CE: Egypt - Dionysius of Alexandria writes his Refutation and Defense.

263 CE: Italy - (c) Plotinus accepts Porphyry as his pupil.

263 CE: Palestine - Eusebius of Caesarea is born in Caesarea.

264 CE: Asia Minor - First Council of Antioch in Pisidia

264 CE: Egypt - Dionysius of Alexandria dies.

265 CE: Egypt - (c -c282) Theognostus heads the catechetical school at Alexandria.

268 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Firmilian of Caesarea dies

268 CE: Italy - (-270) Claudius II succeeds Gallienus as Emperor of Rome.

268 CE: Palestine - Firmilian, bishop of Caesarea, dies.

269 CE: Italy - (-274) Felix is bishop of Rome.

270 CE: Italy - (-275) Aurelian succeeds Claudius II as Emperor of Rome. (c) Plotinus dies in the Campagna.

272 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Gregory the Miracle Worker dies in Neocaesarea

274 CE: Italy - (-283) Eutychian succeeds Felix as bishop of Rome.

276 CE: Italy - (-282) Marcus Aurelius Probus is Emperor of Rome.

282 CE: Egypt - (c) Pierus heads the catechetical school of Alexandria.

282 CE: Italy - (-283) Marcus Aurelius Carus succeeds Marcus Aurelius Probus as Emperor of Rome.

283 CE: Italy - (-296) Caius succeeds Eutychian as bishop of Rome.

284 CE: Italy - (-305) Diocletian is the Emperor of Rome.

285 CE: Greece - (c) Constantine is born at Naissus.

285 CE: Italy - The Roman Empire is partitioned into eastern and western empires. (c) Sixtus II declares that mass should be celebrated on an Altar.

286 CE: England - (c) Rebellion of Carausius against Romans

288 CE: Italy - (c) Martyrdom of St. Sebastian

296 CE: England - Constantius I invaded Britain

296 CE: Italy - (-304) Marcellinus succeeds Caius as bishop of Rome.

296 CE: Spain - (c) Hosius of Córdoba, who was an important figure in the Council of Nicaea and the Arian controversy, is consecrated bishop.

298 CE: Egypt - (c) Athanasius is born.

300 CE: Egypt - (c) Peter becomes bishop of Alexandria.

300 CE: Egypt - (c) Birth of Macarius the Great

300 CE: Palestine - (-325) Eusebius of Caesarea writes his History of the Church.

300 CE: Spain - (c) The Council of Elvira.

303 CE: Italy - (-311) Diocletian persecutes Christians. This is the last persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.

304 CE: Egypt - (c) Martyrdom of Catherine of Alexandria

304 CE: Spain - Martyrdom of St. Vincent of Saragossa

305 CE: Africa - (c) Arnobius of Sicca writes Against the Pagans.

305 CE: Egypt- (c) Peter deposes Meletius, bishop of Lycopolis, thereby beginning the Meletian Schism.

306 CE: England - Constantine is made emperor of the Roman Empire while on a military mission in York, succeeding his father.

306 CE: Italy - (-337) Constantine is the Emperor of Rome.

306 CE: Persia - (c) Ephraim is born in Nisibis.

307 CE: Greece - Constantine marries Fausta, daughter of Maximian, former emperor (March 31).

307 CE: Palestine - Pamphilus of Caesarea is imprisoned during the persecution of Maximinus Daia.

308 CE: Italy - (-309) Marcellus I is bishop of Rome.

309 CE: Egypt - (c) Peter is martyred during the persecution of Diocletian.

309 CE: Italy - (-310) Eusebius succeeds Marcellus as bishop of Rome.

309 CE: Palestine - (c) Pamphilus of Caesarea is executed.

310 CE: Greece - Constantine proclaims Mars to be Constantinople's divine protector.

311 CE: Egypt - Arius is ordained a priest by Bishop Achillas.

311 CE: Greece - (c) Methodius of Philippi is martyred at Chalcis in Euboea.

311 CE: Italy - (-314) Miltiades is bishop of Rome. Galerius proclaims an edict of religious tolerance for all Christians on April 30.

312 CE: Egypt - (-328) Alexander succeeds Achillas as bishop of Alexandria.

312 CE: Italy - Constantine defeasts Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge in Rome. Constantine converts to Christianity.

313 CE: Egypt - (c) Didymus the Blind is born.

313 CE: Italy - Constantine signs the Edict of Milan; establishes tolerance of Christianity.

313 CE: Palestine - Eusebius of Caesarea is consecrated bishop of Caesarea.

314 CE: France - The First Council of Arles.

314 CE: Italy - (-335) Sylvester succeeds Miltiades as bishop of Rome.

314 CE: Palestine - (-320) Eusebius of Caesarea writes his Preparation for the Gospel.

315 CE: France - Hilary of Poitiers is born.

315 CE: Palestine - (c) Cyril is born, probably in Jerusalem. (c) Epiphanius of Salamis is born in southern Palestine.

316 CE: Palestine - (-322) Eusebius of Caesarea writes Proof of the Gospel.

318 CE: Asia Minor - Eusebius of Nicomedia becomes bishop of Nicomedia. (c) The Council of Neocaesarea.

318 CE: Egypt - (c) Athanasius writes his treatises Against the Pagans and On the Incarnation of the Word. (c) Arius writes his Letter to Eusebius of Nicomedia.

320 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Arius writes The Banquet in Nicomedia.

320 CE: Egypt - (c) Arius writes his Letter to Alexander of Alexandria.

323 CE: Egypt - Arius' teachings are causing problems in Alexandria.

324 CE: Greece - Constantine defeats Licinius on the Bosphorus. (-330) Constantine builds Constantinople and designates it as the new capital.

325 CE: Asia Minor - The First Ecumenical Council (The First Council of Nicaea) is convened by Constantine to resolve the differences between orthodoxy and Arianism. The Nicene Creed is written.

325 CE: Italy - Birth of Marcella of Rome

327 CE: Africa - Arnobius of Sicca dies.

327 CE: Asia Minor - Birth of Macrina

328 CE: Egypt - Alexander of Alexandria dies. (-373) Athanasius succeeds him as bishop of Alexandria.

330 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Basil the Great is born in Cappadocia. (c) Gregory of Nazianzus is born in Arianz.

331 CE: Greece - Constantine moves the capital of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople.

331 CE: Italy - Constantine moves the capital of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople.

335 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Gregory of Nyssa is born.

335 CE: France - (-337) Athanasius is exiled to France for refusing to admit Arius into communion with the church.

335 CE: Greece - Basil the Great meets Julian the apostate Emperor and Gregory of Nazianzus.

335 CE: Italy - (-336) Marcus is bishop of Rome.

335 CE: Palestine - The Council of Tyre.

336 CE: Greece - Arius dies in Constantinople.

337 CE: Greece - Constantine is baptized by Eusebius of Nicomedia.

337 CE: Italy - (-352) Julius I is bishop of Rome.

337 CE: Palestine - (-338) Eusebius of Caesarea writes his Ecclesiastical

338 CE: Greece - (-c 341) Eusebius of Nicomedia becomes patriarch of Constantinople.

339 CE: Egypt - (c) Serapion becomes bishop of Thmuis.

339 CE: France - Ambrose is born in Treves.

339 CE: Italy - (-345) Athanasius is exiled to Rome.

340 CE: Egypt - (c) Ordination of Macarius the Great

340 CE: Greece - The Roman Empire is once again divided after the death of Constantine.

340 CE: Russia - (c) Death of Nino of Georgia

341 CE: Greece - (c) Eusebius of Nicomedia dies.

342 CE: Italy - (c) Birth of Melania the Elder

343 CE: Bulgaria - (c) Council of Sardica

343 CE: Greece - (c) The Council of Sardica.

345 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage meets under Gratus to consider disciplinary action for clergy and bishops.

345 CE: Asia Minor - Evagrius in born in Ibora.

345 CE: Italy - (c) Rufinus is born in northern Italy. Birth of Tyrannius Rufus

346 CE: Egypt - Pachomius dies. (-361) Athanasius is exiled to live with other Egyptian monks.

347 CE: Egypt - Athanasius writes his Apology Against the Arians.

347 CE: Greece - (c) Jerome is born at Stridon in Dalmatia.

347 CE: Italy - Birth of Paula of Bethlehem

348 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage convoked by Gratus ends.

348 CE: Egypt - (c) Death of Ammonas

350 CE: Egypt - (c) Death of Paphnutius the Great

350 CE: France - (c) Hilary is consecrated bishop of Poitiers. (c) Birth of Honoratus of Arles

350 CE: Italy - (c) Constantia establishes a basilica at the site of the tomb of St. Agnes

352 CE: Italy - (-336) Liberius succeeds Julius as bishop of Rome.

353 CE: France - The Council of Arles.

354 CE: Africa - Augustine is born at Tagaste (November 13th).

354 CE: Asia Minor - (c) John Chrysostom is born.

354 CE: England - Pelagius is born in Brittain.

355 CE: Asia Minor - Basil the Great returns to Caesarea.

355 CE: Italy - The Council of Milan.

356 CE: Asia Minor - (-359) Hilary of Poitiers is exiled to Phrygia where he writes The Trinity. Constantine translates the relics of Timothy from Ephesus to Constantinople.

356 CE: Egypt - Antony of the Desert dies.

356 CE: France - Council of Béziers condemns Athanasius of Alexandria Constantius exiles Hilary of Poitiers to Phrygia.

357 CE: Spain - Death of Hosius of Córdoba

358 CE: Asia Minor - Basil and Gregory Nazianzus prepare an anthology of Origen's works.

358 CE: Egypt - (-362) Athanasius writes his Discourses Against the Arians.

359 CE: Egypt - (c) Arians depose Bishop Serapion of Thmuis.

360 CE: Asia Minor - Hilary of Poitiers returns from exile in Phrygia to France.

360 CE: France - (c) John Cassian is born in southern France.

361 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Birth of Olympias

361 CE: Italy - (-363) Valerius Maximus, husband of Melania the Elder is prefect of Rome

362 CE: Egypt - The Council of Alexandria. (-363) Athanasius is exiled for the fourth time.

363 CE: Asia Minor - (365) Basil the Great writes Against Eunomius.

364 CE: Asia Minor - Basil the Great is ordained presbyter by Eusebius.

364 CE: Italy - Debates between Hilary of Poitiers and Auxentius of Milan about Arianism.

365 CE: Egypt - (c) Athanasius writes On the Incarnation of the Word of God and Against the Arians. Athanasius is exiled for the fifth time and then permanently reinstated as Bishop.

365 CE: France - (c) Hilary of Poitiers writes Commentaries on the Psalms.

365 CE: Italy - (c) Death of Valerius Maximus, husband of Melania the Elder

366 CE: Italy - (-384) Damasus I is bishop of Rome.

367 CE: England - Picts and Scots attack Romans in Britain

367 CE: France - (c) Hilary of Poitiers dies.

368 CE: Asia Minor - Basil the Great gives his inheritance to the starving.

370 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Gregory of Nyssa writes Virginity. (-378) Basil the Great is consecrated bishop of Caesarea.

370 CE: Italy - Ambrose becomes the provincial governor of Milan.

370 CE: Russia - Huns conquer Goths in Russia.

370 CE: Spain - (-380) During this decade, Priscillian attracts support for his movement within Christianity which encourages reading of apocryphal texts and the rejection of worldly activities; the movement is closely associated to Manicheanism by its opponents.

371 CE: Africa - Augustine goes to Carthage to study at the age of seventeen.

371 CE: Asia Minor - Gregory of Nyssa is consecrated bishop of Nyssa. Valens orders that the province of Cappadocia be split into two provinces.

372 CE: Africa - Adeodatus, Augustine's son, is born in Carthage.

372 CE: Italy - (c) Melania the Elder leaves Rome for a pilgrimage to Egypt and the Holy Land

373 CE: Asia Minor - Basil the Great consecrates Amphilochius bishop of Iconiam.

373 CE: Egypt - Athanasius dies.

373 CE: Persia - Ephraim dies.

374 CE: Africa - Augustine joins a Manichean sect.

374 CE: Egypt - (c) Lucius, Arian bishop of Alexandria, exiles Macarius the Great to an island in the Nile

374 CE: Italy - Ambrose is consecrated bishop of Milan (December 7th).

375 CE: Asia Minor - Basil the Great writes The Holy Spirit

377 CE: Armenia - (c) Birth of Euthymius the Great

377 CE: Italy - (c) Theodosius, Roman Emperor, establishes Catholicism as the religion of the empire.

378 CE: Italy - (c 380) Ambrose writes The Faith.

378 CE: Palestine - (c) Melania the Elder, possibly with Rufinus, establishes a monastery on the Mount of Olives

379 CE: Asia Minor - Gregory of Nyssa writes The Making of Man. Basil the Great dies. Jerome is ordained to the priesthood. Macrina dies

379 CE: Greece - Gregory of Nazianzus writes most of his Orations. (c) The Stoic, Maximus of Alexandria, arrives in Constantinople.

380 CE: Africa - (c) Donatist council at Carthage condemns Tyconnius in the same year that he completes Liber regularum

380 CE: Greece - (c) Socrates Scholastikos is born in Constantinople.

380 CE: Italy - (c - 384) Palagius comes to Rome. (c) Peter Chrysologus is born in Imola.

380 CE: Spain - The Council of Saragossa condemns Priscillianism

381 CE: Egypt - (-392) Didymus the Blind writes The Trinity.

381 CE: Greece - (c) The Second Ecumenical Council (The First Council of Constantinople). Gregory of Nazianzus is consecrated bishop of Constantinople.

381 CE: Italy - Ambrose writes The Holy Spirit.

382 CE: Italy - The Council of Rome.

383 CE: Africa - Augustine moves from Carthage to Milan.

384 CE: Asia Minor - Marriage of Olympias and Nebridius

384 CE: France - Synod of Bordeaux condemns Priscillianism

384 CE: Italy - (-399) Siricius is bishop of Rome.

385 CE: Egypt - (-412) Theophilus is patriarch of Alexandria. (c) John Cassian moves from Egypt to Gaul.

385 CE: England - (c) Birth of St. Patrick

385 CE: France - John Cassian moves from France to Egypt.

385 CE: Italy - Jerome leaves Rome for the Holy Land.

385 CE: Spain - (c) Priscillian and four of his followers are executed

386 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Death of Nebridius

387 CE: Africa - Augustine moves from Milan to Tagaste.

387 CE: Italy - Augustine is baptized by Ambrose. Augstine moves from Milan to Tagaste. Death of Monica

389 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Gregory of Nazianzus dies at Arianz.

390 CE: Africa - (c) Augustine writes The True Religion. Council of Carthage under Genethlius

390 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Gregory of Nyssa writes The Life of Moses.

390 CE: Egypt - (c) Death of Macarius the Great

390 CE: Italy - (c) Councils at Rome and Milan condemn Jovinian for teaching that Mary was no longer virgin after the birth of Jesus

391 CE: Africa - Augustine is ordained to the priesthood.

392 CE: Asia Minor - Theodore is consecrates bishop of Mopsuestia.

393 CE: Africa - Council of Hippo under Aurelius, bishop of Carthage

394 CE: Asia Minor - Gregory of Nyssa disappears from history.

396 CE: Africa - Augustine is consecrated bishop of Hippo.

396 CE: Greece - Aleric invades Greece.

397 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage discusses the canon of the Scriptures and Donatism.

397 CE: Italy - Ambrose dies at Milan (April 4th).

398 CE: Egypt - The catechetical school of Alexandria closes. (c) Didymus the Blind, last head of the catechetical school, dies.

398 CE: Egypt - Rufinus leaves Egypt for Aquilea.

398 CE: Greece - John Chrysostom is consecrated bishop of Constantinople.

399 CE: Italy - (-401) Anastasius succeeds Siricius as bishop of Rome.

400 CE: Africa - Augustine writes The Confessions and (-413) The Trinity. (c) Death of Tyconnius

400 CE: France - (c) Honoratus of of Arles (c) Honoratus of Arles founds Lérins

400 CE: Spain - The Council of Toledo condemns Priscillianism, which is still present Spain even after the death of its founder and leader

401 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage

401 CE: Italy - (-404) Rufinus writes Explanation of the Apostle's Creed. (-417) Innocent I succeeds Anastasius as bishop of Rome. The Visigoths invade Italy.

402 CE: Africa - Council of Milevis condemns Pelagius and appeals to Pope Innocent I to disavow him.

403 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage

403 CE: Asia Minor - John Chrysostom is deposed after the Synod of the Oak. Death of Ephiphanius of Salamis

404 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage

404 CE: Greece - John Chrysostom is exiled to Cucusus in Armenia.

404 CE: Palestine - Death of Paula of Bethlehem

405 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage

405 CE: Italy - John Cassian shows up in Rome; but will soon return to Gaul.

406 CE: Armenia - Euthymius travels to Palestine

407 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage

407 CE: Asia Minor - John Chrysostom dies en route to Pontus (September 14).

408 CE: Africa - Councils of Carthage in June and October

408 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Death of Olympias

408 CE: Egypt - Nomadic tribesmen raid Sketis.

408 CE: France - Faustus of Reiz is born.

409 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage

409 CE: Spain - Groups of barbarians, consisting of the Alans, the Sueves, and the Vandals, invade Spain, conquering four of the five Roman provinces

410 CE: Africa - Pelagius flees from Rome to Carthage. Council of Carthage Council of Carthage

410 CE: Italy - Aleric invades Rome. Pelagius flees to Carthage. Rufinus dies (in Rome?). Death of Rufinus Death of Marcella of Rome

410 CE: Palestine - (c) Death of Melania the Elder

411 CE: Africa - Pelagius is excommunicated after a Council of Carthage. Council of Carthage meets to discuss Donatism. Aurelius excommunicates Coelestius, collaborator with Pelagius.

412 CE: Egypt - Cyril succeeds Theophilus as patriarch of Alexandria.

413 CE: Africa - (-426) Augustine writes The City of God.

415 CE: Egypt - Death of Hypatia

415 CE: Palestine - Orosius accuses Pelagius of heresy.

416 CE: Italy - The Visigoths accept the commission from Rome to subdue the barbarian tribes which had entered Spain in 409

416 CE: Spain - (-418) The Visigoths, under the rule of Wallia (415-418), rout the Vandals and the Alans in Spain; the Visigoths settle in southwestern Gaul and operate as federates of Rome, owing the empire military service

417 CE: Italy - (-418) Zosimus succeeds Innocent as bishop of Rome.

418 CE: Africa - (c) Pelagius and Celestius are excommunicated. Council of Carthage condemns nine specific errors of Pelagius, including his beliefs about original sin, grace, and human sinfullness.

418 CE: Italy - (-422) Boniface succeeds Zosimus as bishop of Rome.

418 CE: Spain - Upon the death of Wallia, Theodoric I replaces him and rules the Visigoths until he dies in 451 while fighting Attila the Hun

419 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage assembles to discuss the claim of Rome to have jurisdiction over North Africa.

419 CE: Palestine - Death of Eustochium

420 CE: Africa - (c) Paulinus of Milan writes the Life of Saint Ambrose.

420 CE: France - (-428) John Cassian writes the Conferences. (c) Birth of Genevičve of Paris at Nanterre.

421 CE: Africa - Augustine writes The Enchiridion of Faith, Hope and Love.

422 CE: Italy - (-432) Celestine I succeeds Boniface as bishop of Rome.

423 CE: Egypt - (-425) Cyril of Alexandria writes the Treasury of the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity.

425 CE: England - (c) Vortigern becomes ruler of Britain

426 CE: France - Honoratus of Arles becomes bishop of Arles

428 CE: Asia Minor - Theodore of Mopsuestia dies.

428 CE: England - (c) Birth of Benedict Biscop

428 CE: Greece - Nestorius is consecrated bishop of Constantinople (April 10th).

429 CE: Egypt - Death of Sisoes the Great, one of the Desert Fathers.

429 CE: England - St. Germanus of Auxerre visits Britain

429 CE: France - (c) John Cassian writes The Incarnation of Christ. Death of Honoratus of Arles; Hilarius becomes bishop of Arles

429 CE: Greece - (c) Caelestius, follower of Pelagius, dies in Constantinople.

430 CE: Africa - Augustine dies (at Hippo?).

430 CE: Egypt - Cyril of Alexandria writes Against the Blasphemies of Nestorius, "The Twelve Anathemas," and a denunciation of Nestorius to Pope Celestine.

430 CE: Italy - Celestine, bishop of Rome, condemns Nestorius.

431 CE: Asia Minor - The Third Ecumenical Council (The Council of Ephesus); Nestorianism and Pelagianism are condemned.

431 CE: Italy - Pope Celestine sends Pallidius to evangelize Ireland

432 CE: France - (c) Eucherius becomes bishop of Lyons.

432 CE: Ireland - Patrick begins his missionary work in Ireland.

432 CE: Italy - (-440) Sixtus III succeeds Celestine as bishop of Rome. (-440) Peter Chrysologus is consecrated bishop of Ravenna.

433 CE: France - (-434) Prosper of Aquitaine writes The Grace of God and Free Choice.

434 CE: France - (c) Vincent of Lerins writes The Notebooks.

434 CE: Greece - Proclus becomes bishop of Constantinople.

435 CE: Asia Minor - (-457) Ibas is bishop of Edessa.

435 CE: France - (c) John Cassian dies.

435 CE: Greece - Theodosius orders the writings of Nestorius to be burnt.

436 CE: Greece - Nestorius is exiled to Petra in Arabia and then to Egypt.

437 CE: France - (c) Birth of Remigius of Rheims

439 CE: Greece - (c) Socrates Scholastikos writes the History of the Church.

440 CE: Italy - (-461) Leo I (the Great) succeeds Sixtus III as bishop of Rome.

442 CE: England - Saxon rebellion

444 CE: Egypt - Cyril of Alexandria dies.

444 CE: Ireland - Founding of Armagh

446 CE: England - British appeal to Roman general Ćtius for aid against the Saxons

446 CE: Greece - Proclus of Constantinople dies.

449 CE: Asia Minor - The Robber Synod of Ephesus; Ibas of Edessa is deposed as a Nestorian sympathizer.

449 CE: France - Death of Hilarius of Arles

450 CE: Egypt - Death of Poemen, one of the Desert Fathers.

450 CE: Ireland - (c) Birth of St. Bridget of Ireland

450 CE: Italy - (c) Peter Chrysologus dies, possibly at Imola. (c) Prosper of Aquitaine writes The Call of All Nations.

451 CE: Asia Minor - The Fourth Ecumenical Council (The Council of Chalcedon) is convened to reconcile Christological differences between Antiochene and Alexandrian theology.

451 CE: Spain - Thorismund, son of Theodoric I, becomes king of the Visigoths and rules until replaced by his brother Theodoric II in 453

453 CE: Egypt - (c) Nestorius dies (perhaps in Libya).

455 CE: Italy - The Vandals invade Rome.

456 CE: Spain - the Visigoths, under the rule of Theodoric II, defeat the Sueves, the remaining barbarian tribe (besides the Visigoths themselves) in Spain

457 CE: Greece - (-474) Leo I is Emperor of the Eastern Empire.

458 CE: Greece - (-471) Gennadius is the patriarch of Constantinople.

461 CE: Ireland - (c) Death of St. Patrick

461 CE: Italy - (-468) Hilarius succeeds Leo the Great as bishop of Rome.

466 CE: Spain - Euric becomes king of the Visigoths after murdering his brother, Theodoric II; he would end any and all Roman imperial rule in Spain in the mid-470s and would provide the first written legislation for the Visigoths

467 CE: Africa - Fulgence of Ruspe is born.

468 CE: Italy - (483) Simplicius succeeds Hilarius as bishop of Rome.

470 CE: France - (c) Caesar of Arles is born.

470 CE: Ireland - Founding of Kildaire

473 CE: Palestine - Death of Euthymius the Great

474 CE: Greece - (-491) Zeno is the Byzantine Emperor.

476 CE: Greece - The Neoplatonist, Proclus, becomes head of Plato's Academy in Athens.

476 CE: Italy - Odovacar and the Ostrogoths depose the last emperor in Rome; Euric proclaims the Visigothic monarchy an independent state, with its capital at Toulouse; the Arian kings and population would be relatively tolerant of Catholic Christians, and no major clashes between Arians and Catholics have been reported; the kingdom would be under the joint administration and control of the Visigothic and Roman nobility; the Visigothic nobility governs the Visigothic population and the Roman nobility governs the Roman population, while the Visigothic king decides policy for them all; the two peoples are separate but live on equal terms; each nationality has its own priests and churches, its own courts, judges, and civil services, and intermarriage between the two populations is banned (though not effectively)

478 CE: Palestine - Establishment of the Great Lavra (Mar Saba)

480 CE: Italy - Boethius is born. (c) Benedict is born in Nursia.

480 CE: Spain - (c) virtually all of Spain is now under control of the Arian Visigoths: the Vandals had moved to Africa in 429, the Alans had been conquered, while the Sueves had been contained to Galicia in the nortwestern corner of Spain; the Visigoths probably do not

483 CE: Italy - (-492) Felix III succeeds Simplicius as bishop of Rome.

484 CE: Africa - Council of Carthage, now controlled by Arians, exiles and excommunicates the orthodox bishops of Africa.

484 CE: Spain - Euric dies, and is succeeded by his son, Alaric II

485 CE: Italy - (c) Cassiodorus is born.

486 CE: Ireland - (c) Birth of Brendan the Navigator

486 CE: Persia - The Synod of Seleucia; The Syrian Church of Persia officially adopts Nestorianism.

488 CE: Africa - (-489) Victor of Vita writes the History of the Persecution in the Province of Africa.

489 CE: Asia Minor - Emperor Zeno banishes the Nestorians.

489 CE: Ireland - (c) Birth of St. Brendan the Voyager

490 CE: France - Faustus of Reiz dies.

492 CE: Italy - (-496) Gelasius succeeds Felix III as bishop of Rome.

495 CE: Palestine - Death of Simeon Stylites Death of Simeon Stylites

496 CE: Italy - (-498) Anastasius II succeeds Gelasius as bishop of Rome.

498 CE: Italy - (-514) Symmachus succeeds Anastasius II as bishop of Rome.

500 CE: England - Defeat of the Saxons at Mons Badonicus (c) Birth of Gildas the Wise

500 CE: France - (c) Death of Genevičve of Paris

500 CE: Russia - (c) Slavs begin to migrate to Russia.

502 CE: Africa - Fulgence is consecrated bishop of Ruspe.

502 CE: France - Caesar is consecrated bishop of Arles.

507 CE: Spain - Clovis and the Franks, along with Burgundian allies, defeat Alaric II and the Visigoths at Vouille; this loss virtually ends Visigothic rule in Gaul and confines them almost exclusively to Spain; Gesalic, the illegitimate son of Alaric II, becomes king up

510 CE: Africa - (-517) Fulgence writes The Trinity.

511 CE: Spain - Gesalic is chased from Spain, and Amalric, son of Alaric II, becomes king (although Theodoric, the Ostrogothic king of Italy, would, until his death in 526, act as Amalric's regent)

514 CE: Italy - (-523) Hormisdas succeeds Symmachus as bishop of Rome.

517 CE: France - Council of Epeaune declared that Altars should be made of stone.

518 CE: France - Birth of Radegund the Deaconess

521 CE: Ireland - (c) Birth of St. Columba

522 CE: Italy - Eutychius and Tertullus send their sons, Maurus and Placidus to live with Benedict.

523 CE: Africa - (-526) Fulgence writes The Rule of Faith.

523 CE: Italy - (-526) John I succeeds Hormisdas as bishop of Rome.

525 CE: Africa - Boniface of Carthage calls for a council.

525 CE: Ireland - (c) Death of St. Bridget of Ireland

526 CE: Italy - (-530) Felix IV succeeds John I as bishop of Rome.

527 CE: Africa - Fulgence of Ruspe dies.

527 CE: Greece - (-565) Justinian I is the Byzantine Emperor.

529 CE: France - (c) The Second Council of Orange; Semi-Pelagianism is condemned.

529 CE: Italy - Benedict founds Monte Cassino.

530 CE: France - (c) Death of Remigius of Rheims

530 CE: Italy - (-532) Boniface II succeeds Felix IV as bishop of Rome.

531 CE: Spain - Amalric marries Clothild, daughter of Clovis; later in the year, the Frank Childebert and his army defeat Amalric at Narbonne and return to France with Clothild, who had been mistreated by her husband because she refused to convert to Arianism (reportedly , he had dung poured on her as she traveled to church); Amalric is murdered while trying to take refuge in a Catholic church in Barcelona; Theudis, a former general of Theodoric the Ostrogoth, becomes king

532 CE: Asia Minor - Nike revolt in Constantinople

532 CE: Palestine - Death of Sabas the Great

533 CE: Italy - (535) John II is bishop of Rome.

534 CE: Africa - Boniface of Carthage convokes a council to discuss reception of Arians who have become orthodox.

535 CE: Italy - (- 536) Agapetus succeeds John II as bishop of Rome. (-540) Benedict writes the Holy Rule. The Byzantine Emperor Justinian takes Italy back from German invaders.

536 CE: France - Marriage of Clotaire and Radegund

536 CE: Italy - (-537) Silverius succeeds Agapetus as bishop of Rome.

537 CE: Italy - (-555) Vigilius succeeds Silverius as bishop of Rome.

538 CE: France - Gregory of Tours is born at Arverna.

540 CE: England - (c) Gildas the Wise composes De excidio et conquestu Britanniae, ac flebi castigatione in reges, principes, et sacradotes

540 CE: Ireland - (c) Birth of St. Columbanus

540 CE: Italy - (c) Gregory I (the Great) is born in Rome.

542 CE: France - Caesar of Arles, dies.

543 CE: Asia Minor - Justinian issues The Three Chapters, an anathema against specific writings said to contain the seeds of Nestorianism.

543 CE: England - (c) Kentigern becomes first bishop of Strathclyde

543 CE: Italy - (c) Benedict dies.

545 CE: Ireland - Founding of the monastery at Clonmacnoise

548 CE: Spain - Theudis is murdered and replaced by Theudigisel.

549 CE: Spain - Theodigisel is murdered; Agila becomes king

550 CE: England - Beginning of Germanic invasions of Britain

550 CE: Spain - (-560) The Sueves and their king, Theodemir, are converted to Catholicism by Martin of Braga

551 CE: Ireland - Founding of the monastery at Derry

551 CE: Spain - (-552) Athanagild, revolting against the Visigothic king Agila, appeals to the Byzantines for military help; they land in Spain and help to defeat Agila's army; the Byzantines would hold parts of southern Spain and would not be completely expelled until t he reign of Sunithila (621-631)

553 CE: England - (c) Pagans exile Kentigern to Wales

553 CE: Greece - The Fifth Ecumenical Council (The Second Council of Constantinople); Theodore of Mopsuestia is condemned.

554 CE: Ireland - Founding of the monastery at Kells

555 CE: France - (c) Dissolution of the marriageof Clotaire and Radegund

555 CE: Spain - Agila is murdered by his own supporters, and the crown is given to Athanagild

556 CE: Ireland - Founding of the monastery at Durrow

556 CE: Italy - (561) Pelagius I is bishop of Rome.

558 CE: Russia - Avar invasion of Russia.

559 CE: Ireland - (c) Founding of Clonfert (c) Founding of the monastery at Clonfert

560 CE: Spain - (c) Isidore is born in Seville.

561 CE: Italy - (574) John III succeeds Pelagius I as bishop of Rome.

562 CE: Ireland - (c) Death of St. Brendann of Birr

563 CE: England - Founding of the monastery at Iona

568 CE: Spain - Liuva I becomes king upon the death of his father, Athanagild; he appoints his brother, Leovigild, to rule part of the kingdom

570 CE: France - (c) Death of Gildas the Wise

572 CE: Spain - Leovigild becomes the sole ruler upon the death of his brother; he is the only Arian king reported to have persecuted the Catholics, although it is directed at a few individuals and not the whole community

573 CE: England - (c) Kentigern returns from exile

575 CE: Ireland - (c) Death of Brendan the Navigator

575 CE: Italy - (-579) Benedict I is bishop of Rome.

579 CE: Italy - (-590) Pelagius II succeeds Benedict I as bishop of Rome.

579 CE: Spain - Hermendgild, son of Leovigild and brother of the future king, Reccared, marries Ingundis, daughter of King Sigibert I of France; Ingundis, only about twelve years old, refuses to convert to Arianism, so the wife of King Leovigild (who happens to also be I ngundis' grandmother) reportedly abuses her, in one instance having her stripped and ducked in a pond; Leovigild gives the province Baeticia to Hermendgild to rule, and in Seville, Ingundis and a monk, Leander, persuade Hermendgild to join the Catholic Ch urch Martin, the Bishop of Braga in Galicia, dies at his monastery at Dumium; he had been a great missionary, writer, monk, and bishop Hermendgild, having refused to revert to Arianism, revolts against his father, allies himself with the Byzantines, and proclaims himself king at Seville

580 CE: France - (c) Birth of Arnulf of Metz

580 CE: Italy - (c) Monte Cassino is demolished by the Lombards.

580 CE: Spain - Leovigild calls an Arian synod which ends the Arian practice of rebaptizing Catholic converts

582 CE: Asia Minor - (c) John the Faster elected Patriarch of Constantinople

582 CE: Spain - Leovigild concedes the equality of the Son is equal with the Father, and by doing so denies one of the fundamental tenets of Arianism, namely, that the Christ is a creature and therefore subordinate to God the Father; he is, perhaps, hoping to gain suppor t in his struggle with his Catholic son, Hermendgild, by offerring a compromise formula for Catholic Goths; Leovigild still denies the divinity of the Holy Spirit, and in doing so sides with the heresy of the Macedonians (also known as Semi-Arianism)

583 CE: Ireland - Death of St. Brendan the Voyager

584 CE: Spain - Leovigild captures Hermendgild and exiles him to Valencia, where he is later murdured; he dies a martyr for the Catholic faith, and is praised in the writings of Pope Gregory the Gre at and Gregory of Tours

585 CE: Italy - Cassiodorus dies. (c) Lombards destroy Monte Cassino

585 CE: Spain - Leovigild defeats the Sueves, taking their territory and reestablishing Arianism as the state religion

586 CE: Spain - Leovigild dies; although there are reports of his secret conversion to Catholicism before his death, Pope Gregory the Great and Gregory of Tours hold that he died an Arian; he is succeeded by his son Recarred

587 CE: France - Death of Radegund the Deaconess

587 CE: Spain - Recarred converts to Catholicism and is instructed by Leander of Seville, the monk who had converted Hermendgild and who had later been named bishop; the bulk of the Gothic population of Spain generally accept the new Catholic order of things; Reccared wo rks to end Arianism in Spain by banning Arians from employment in civil service, suppressing the Arian church, burning Arian books, and even forcing conversion among some Arians; the Arians are never to be heard from again after his reign

589 CE: Spain - The Third Council of Toledo is presided over by Leander; Reccared announces his conversion, condemns Arianism, and recognizes official Catholic doctrine; the council also legislates on secular matters and, for the first time in Spanish history, allows for the forcible conversion of Jews in certain circumstances; Arianism had not changed much during its history in Spain, and it provided unity for the minority Visigothic population, who were settled among a decisive Catholic Roman majority; the Arianism of the Visigoths had differred from Catholicism in practice as well as theology: Gothic was the liturgical language, the services were held before daybreak, some of the clergy were married, and baptism required triple immersion; many Goths had converted to Catholicism during Hermenegild's revolt, so Reccared's establishment of the new state religion continued the trend and, in effect, settled the issue

590 CE: France - (c) Founding of Luxeuil

590 CE: Ireland - Death of St. Enda

590 CE: Italy - (-604) Gregory I (the Great) succeeds Pelagius II as bishop of Rome.

593 CE: England - Death of King Ceawlin of Wessex

593 CE: France - Gregory of Tours dies.

593 CE: Italy - Gregory I writes his Dialogues, which include a biography of Benedict.

595 CE: Asia Minor - Death of John the Faster

595 CE: France - Theodebert II becomes king of Austrasia

596 CE: Spain - Leander, Bishop of Seville, dies; his brother, Isidore, succeeds him as bishop

597 CE: England - St. Augustine arrives in Kent

597 CE: Scotland - Death of St. Columba

599 CE: Spain - (c) Isidore is consecrated bishop of Seville.

599 CE: Spain - Isidore is consecrated Bishop of Seville

600 CE: Russia - Khazars conquer Russia.

601 CE: Spain - Reccared dies, and his illegitimate son, Liuva II, becomes king

603 CE: England - British defeat the Scots at Degsastan (c) Death of Kentigern

603 CE: Spain - Witteric deposes Liuva II and proclaims himself king

604 CE: England - (c) Death of St. Augustine.

605 CE: Ireland - (c) Birth of Colmán of Lindisfarne

607 CE: England - Completion of St. Paul's Cathedral, London

607 CE: Spain - (c) Birth of Ildephonsus of Toledo

608 CE: Egypt - John the Almsgiver elected Patriarch of Alexandria

608 CE: Italy - (-615) Boniface IV is bishop of Rome.

610 CE: Spain - Witteric is murdered; Gundemar becomes king

612 CE: France - Death of Theodebert II of Austrasia

612 CE: Italy - Founding of Bobbio

612 CE: Spain - Gundemar dies and is replaced on the throne by Sisebut; during his reign, Sisebut will enact many anti-Jewish laws, including forcible conversion of Jews in certain circumstances and the prohibition of the conversion of Christians to Judaism

615 CE: Italy - Death of St. Columbanus

616 CE: England - Death of King Aethelfrith of Britain British defeat the Welsh at Chester

619 CE: Greece - Death of John the Almsgiver

621 CE: Spain - Sisebut dies, to be replaced for a few days as king by his son Reccared II; Suinthila replaces Reccared II upon his death

625 CE: England - Death of King Raedwald of Britain

625 CE: Spain - (-626) Isidore publishes The History of the Goths

626 CE: England - Essex returns to pagan worship

626 CE: France - (c) Birth of Gertrude of Nivelles

627 CE: England - Conversion of King Edwin of Northumbria

627 CE: Spain - (-636) Isidore writes Etymologies.

630 CE: England - Conversion of East Anglia

631 CE: Spain - Suinthila, facing rebellion, abdicates the throne, and Sisenand becomes king

632 CE: England - Death of King Edwin of Northumbria

633 CE: Spain - Sisenand opens the Fourth Council of Toledo; the bishops, led by Isidore, work to establish uniformity in ecclesiastical matters throughout the kingdom and decree that every diocese should have a seminary or cathedral school; the council also deals with administration and discipline in the Church, monks and penitents, the Jews, and the freedmen of the Church; the seventy-fifth canon turns to secular affairs, condemning rebellions and plots against the monarch, and stipulating that a king's successor would by appointed by the nobles and the bishops of the kingdom; the bishops condemn Sisebut's forcible conversion of Jews, marking the only time that anti-Jewish legislation imposed by the kings is criticized by Spanish bishops

634 CE: England - (c) Birth of St. Cuthbert

634 CE: Greece - (c) Germain is born in Constantinople.

635 CE: England - Founding of the monastery at Lindesfarne

636 CE: Spain - Sisenand dies, and is succeeded as king by Chintila, who calls the Fifth Council of Toledo. The bishops address almost exclusively the issues of the safety of the monarch and succession to the throne

638 CE: Spain - Chintila calls the Sixth Council of Toledo; the bishops again concern themselves with, among other matters, the safety and stability of the king; also, Braulio, Bishop of Saragossa, writes for the council a response to a letter from Pope Honorius I which had urged the bishops to be stronger in their faith and in their attack on Judaism; the council also supports Chintila's goals of eliminating Judaism and forbidding non-Catholics to live in Spain (the latter is a first in the history of Western Europe) A group of Jews at Seville are forced to accept baptism and sign a profession of faith; in this document, called a placitum, the converted Jews are made to renounce the beliefs, rites, and festivals of Judaism, and promise to stone to death any converted Jew who might deviate from the Catholic faith; this practice of forcible conversion contradicts the ruling of the Fourth Council of Toledo

640 CE: England - (c) Birth of Aldhelm

640 CE: France - Benedict's relics are transferred to St. Benedict's Church in Fleury. (c) Death of Arnulf of Metz

640 CE: Spain - Chintila dies, and is replaced by his son Tulga

641 CE: England - Death of King Oswald of Britain

642 CE: Spain - Chindasuinth proclaims himself king and dethrones Tulga; he has Tulga tonsured, which makes him inelligible to rule, according to the Sixth Council of Toledo

646 CE: Spain - Chindasuinth calls the Seventh Council of Toledo, which confirms his laws against treason

649 CE: Spain - Reccesuinth, Chindasuinth's son, is declared king and rules jointly with his father until the elder's death in 653

651 CE: Spain - Braulio, Bishop of Saragossa, dies; he is remembered as a fine scholar and preacher

653 CE: England - Conversion of Mercia

653 CE: Spain - Reccesuinth calls the Eighth Council of Toledo, which addresses legal reform, treason, and Judaism Reccesuinth's new code of law is published which enacts harsh laws against the Jews (for example, to be a practising Jew becomes a capital offense) and which end any legal distinction between Visigoths and Romans, depriving the Romans of most of their pow er in the Church and state

654 CE: England - St. Botolph founds the monastery at Ikenho

655 CE: France - (c) Death of Foillan

655 CE: Spain - The bishops of Carthaginiensis hold a provincial synod which becomes known as the Ninth Council of Toledo

656 CE: Spain - The Tenth Council of Toledo addresses, among other things, the issue of the many priests and deacons who sell Christian slaves to Jews

657 CE: Spain - Eugenius II dies; he was a monk from Saragossa who had served as Bishop of Toledo; he is succeeded at the see of Toledo by his nephew Ildephonsus

658 CE: England - Cćdmon enters the monastery at Whitby (c) Birth of Willibrord of Utrecht

659 CE: France - Death of Gertrude of Nivelles

664 CE: England - Synod of Whitby St. Cuthbert enters the monastery at Lindesfarne

664 CE: Ireland - (c) The Book of Durrow

665 CE: Spain - Fructuosus dies; he had established a number of monasteries under the Rule of St. Benedict in Spain and served first as the Bishop of Dumium and then in Braga

667 CE: Spain - Death of Ildephonsus of Toledo

669 CE: England - Arrival of Theodore of Tarsus St. Theodore of Tarsus arrives in Britain

670 CE: England - Ecgfrith becomes king of Northumbria

671 CE: Ireland - Colmán of Lindisfarne establishes Mayo of the Saxons

672 CE: England - (c) Birth of Bede

672 CE: Spain - Wamba becomes king upon the death of Reccesuinth

673 CE: England - Founding of Ely Birth of St. Guthlac

674 CE: England - Founding of St. Peter monastery at Wearmouth Founding of the monastery at Wearmouth

675 CE: England - Beginning of the rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral, London (c) Hildelith becomes abbess of Barking

675 CE: Spain - The Eleventh Council of Toledo addresses the problem of the morality of bishops; for example, the Council rules that if a bishop seduces a relative of a noble, he is to be dismissed from office, exiled, and excommunicated; this is also the penalty for bis hops who murder or wound nobility

676 CE: Ireland - Death of Colmán of Lindisfarne

677 CE: England - (c) Willibrord of Utrecht leaves Ripon for Mellifont in Ireland

678 CE: England - Battle of the Trent

678 CE: Italy - (-681) Agatho is bishop of Rome.

679 CE: England - Death of Etheldreda of Ely

680 CE: England - (c) Death of Cćdmon Death of St. Botolph

680 CE: Greece - (-681) The Sixth Ecumenical Council (The Third Council of Constantinople).

680 CE: Spain - Wamba, believing himself to be mortally ill, undergoes penance and takes the monastic habit; he recovers but, because of the ruling of the Sixth Council of Toledo, is forced to renounce the throne (the Council had ruled that anyone who had undergone penan ce could not rule as king); as a result, Erwig is named king

681 CE: Spain - The Twelfth Council of Toledo confirms the accession to the throne of King Erwig

682 CE: England - Founding of St. Paul monastery at Jarrow Founding of the monastery at Jarrow

682 CE: Italy - (-683) Leo II is bishop of Rome.

683 CE: Spain - The Thirteenth Council of Toledo meets and, among other rulings, adopts Erwig's large body of anti-Jewish legislation, which includes obligatory baptism

684 CE: England - St. Cuthbert becomes bishop of Hexham

684 CE: Spain - The Fourteenth Council of Toledo; the bishops respond to a letter from Pope Leo II that had asked the Spanish bishops to confirm the decisions of the Third Council of Constantinople; the successor of Pope Leo II, Benedict II, is disturbed by the rulings of the Fourteenth Council and writes that some of the Council's phrases are doctrinally incorrect; this m atter leads to a dispute between Julian of Toledo, who defended the Council, and the Pope

685 CE: England - (-687) Cuthbert is Bishop of Lindisfarne. Death of King Ecgfrith of Northumbria Completion of the rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral, London

686 CE: England - (c) Death of St. Eata

687 CE: England - Conversion of Sussex Death of St. Cuthbert

687 CE: Spain - Egica becomes king upon Erwig's death and opens the Fifteenth Council of Toledo; the Council adopts the substance of Julian's argument against the Papacy

689 CE: England - Death of Benedict Biscop

690 CE: Ireland - Egbert sends Willibrord of Utrecht and companions to evangelize Frisia

690 CE: Spain - St. Julian, Bishop of Toledo, dies; he had been a great writer and capable theogian

693 CE: Spain - The Sixteenth Council of Toledo confirm Egica's laws that establish severe economic limitations on unconverted Jews; the Council also addresses legal reform

694 CE: England - Kent becomes an independent kingdom

694 CE: Spain - The Seventeenth Council of Toledo; Egica declares knowledge of a conspiracy among Spanish Jews, working with other Jews throughout the world, to revolt against their Christian rulers and eliminate Christianity; this story, invented by Egica, yields decree s from the bishops that all unbaptized Jews should be stripped of their property and sold, along with their famiilies, into slavery, never to be freed and never to be allowed to practice their religion in Spain

695 CE: England - King Wihted bans pagan worship in Britain

695 CE: Italy - Sergius III consecrates Willibrord of Utrecht Archbishop of the Frisians

696 CE: England - The Lindesfarne Gospel

696 CE: France - (c) Rigoberto appointed Archbishop of Rheims

700 CE: England - (c) Beowulf

700 CE: Spain - Egica appoints his son Wittiza as co-ruler of the kingdom

702 CE: Spain - Egica dies; Wittiza is the sole king

705 CE: England - Aldhelm appointed bishop of Sherborne

709 CE: England - Death of Aldhelm (c) Death of Adrian of Canterbury

710 CE: Germany - (c) Death of Rupert of Salzburg

710 CE: Spain - Roderic becomes king upon the death of Wittiza

711 CE: Spain - Musa, the Arab governor of Spain, sends his general Tarik ibn Ziyad to Spain; he lands at Gibraltar, and begins to ravage the cities; Roderic is defeated, losing his country, his throne, and, presumably, his life; Musa crosses into Spain, as civil war is raging in the country, takes Toledo, and executes Oppa, a son of Egica; Theudimer makes peace with Musa's son, Abd el Aziz; Roderic had been succeeded by Achila, but his deeds and fate are unknown

712 CE: England - (c) Death of Hildelith of Barking

714 CE: England - (c) Death of St. Guthlac

714 CE: France - Willibrord of Utrecht baptizes Pepin III the Short

715 CE: France - Willibrord of Utrecht establishes a monastery at Echternach

715 CE: Germany - Duke Radbod exiles Willibrord of Utrecht

715 CE: Greece - Germain I becomes the Patriarch of Constantinople.

716 CE: England - Founding of the monastery at Crowland

719 CE: Germany - Death of Radbod, Duke of the Frisians

721 CE: France - (c) Rigoberto exiled to Gascony

725 CE: England - Death of King Wihtred of Kent

726 CE: England - Abdication of King Ine of Kent

729 CE: England - Ceolwulf becomes king of Northumbria

730 CE: France - (c) Death of Rigoberto of Rheims

731 CE: Italy - (-741) Gregory III is bishop of Rome.

733 CE: Greece - Germain I dies in Platanion.

735 CE: England - (c) Birth of Alcuin of York Death of Bede

737 CE: England - Ceolwulf abdicates to become a monk at Lindisfarne

739 CE: France - Death of Willibrord of Utrecht

741 CE: Italy - (-752) Zachary is bishop of Rome.

749 CE: Palestine - (c) Death of John of Damascus

750 CE: Ireland - (c) The Book of Kells

754 CE: France - Carlomen and Charlemagne become joint rulers of the Franks

757 CE: England - Death of King Aethelbald of Mercia Offa become king of the Angles

764 CE: England - (c) Death of Ceolwulf

768 CE: France - Death of Pepin the Short

770 CE: Germany - (c) Birth of Einhard

771 CE: France - Death of Carlomen

776 CE: England - Battle of Otford

778 CE: France - Charlemagne conquers Bavaria

779 CE: Germany - Einhard begins his education at Fulda.

784 CE: England - Beginning of construction on Offa's Dyke between England & Wales

787 CE: Asia Minor - The Seventh Ecumenical Council (The Second Council of Nicaea).

787 CE: England - Arrival of the first papal legates to Britain

788 CE: England - Establishment of Litchfield as an archbishopric

789 CE: France - Capitulary of Herstal sets forth the ideals of a Christian kingdom

791 CE: Germany - (c) Einhard begins attending the royal school at Aachen.

793 CE: England - Beginning of Viking raids on Britain Danes sack Lindesfarne

794 CE: England - Beheading of King Ethelbert of the East Angles

795 CE: Ireland - Beginning of Viking raids

796 CE: England - First recorded treaty in British history, between King Offa and Charlemagne Completion of Offa's Dyke between England & Wales Death of King Offa

800 CE: Italy - Leo III crowns Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor

804 CE: France - Rebellion in Brittany Death of Alcuin of York

804 CE: Ireland - (c) Monks of Iona seek refuge from Vikings at the Kells

807 CE: Ireland - (c) The Book of Armagh

810 CE: France - Charlemagne invades Denmark (c) Birth of Anskar

812 CE: France - Death of William of Gellone

815 CE: Greece - (c) Birth of Methodius

817 CE: France - Synod of Aachen approves a uniform rule for all monasteries in the kingdom of the Franks

821 CE: France - Death of Benedict of Aniane

825 CE: England - Death of King Beornwulf of Mercia

826 CE: Germany - Anskar begins missionary work.

826 CE: Greece - (c) Birth of Constantine the Philosopher (Cyril)

827 CE: Scandinavia - Defeat of Harald of Denmark in a dynastic struggle.

829 CE: Scandinavia - (c) Founding of the first Swedish church at Björnkö

830 CE: England - Translation of the relics of Cuthbert and Ceolwulf from Lindisfarne to Norham-on-Tweed

830 CE: Germany - Einhard resigns as royal advisor to Louis I the Pious.

831 CE: Germany - Anskar becomes first bishop of Hamburg.

834 CE: Flanders - Establishment of Turholt Abbey

834 CE: Scandinavia - Horec I becomes king of Denmark

836 CE: Germany - Einhard completes his life of Charlemagne.

838 CE: England - Defeat of Viking invaders of Britain

838 CE: Germany - (c) Einhard founds Seligenstadt on his estate in Mühlheim.

840 CE: France - Death of Louis I the Pius

840 CE: Germany - Death of Einhard

841 CE: Ireland - Establishment of Dublin

845 CE: Germany - Norse sack Hamburg

845 CE: Ireland - Defeat of the Vikings

847 CE: Germany - Anskar becomes archbishop of Bremen

849 CE: England - Birth of King Alfred of England

850 CE: Greece - Methodius becomes a monk on Mount Olympus

851 CE: England - Defeat of Viking invaders at Canterbury

851 CE: Ireland - Beginning of Norwegian Viking raids

852 CE: Scandinavia - Conversion of Haarik II of Sweden

854 CE: Germany - Pagan rebellion in Bremen

854 CE: Scandinavia - Conversion of Erik of Jutland

860 CE: England - Danes destroy Crowland

862 CE: Russia - Rurik establishes himself at Novgorod.

865 CE: England - Danes invade East Anglia

865 CE: Germany - Death of Anskar

866 CE: Russia - Sts. Cyril and Methodius begin preaching Christianity to the Slavs.

867 CE: Ireland - Defeat of the Vikings at Lough Foyle

869 CE: Italy - Death of Cyril

869 CE: Russia - Death of St. Cyril.

870 CE: England - Danes sack Ely

871 CE: England - Defeat of the Danes at Ashdown, Britain

875 CE: England - Danes sack Lindesfarne for a second time

877 CE: England - King Alfred drives the Danes from Wessex

878 CE: Russia - Oleg captures Smolensk and Kiev.

879 CE: Russia - Death of Rurik. Oleg becomes ruler of Novgorod.

882 CE: Russia - Novgorod becomes the capital of Russia.

884 CE: Russia - Death of St. Methodius.

885 CE: Germany - Death of Methodius

886 CE: England - Alfred becomes the first king of England

887 CE: England - King Alfred begins to translate books from Latin into English

890 CE: England - Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

899 CE: England - Death of King Alfred

904 CE: Ireland - Death of King Flann of Munster

907 CE: Bohemia - (c) Birth of Wenceslaus

907 CE: Russia - Commercial treaty between Russia and Constantinople.

908 CE: Ireland - Battle of Ballaghmoon (defeat of the Vikings)

910 CE: England - Defeat of the Danes at Tettenhall

911 CE: Russia - Second commercial treaty between Russia and Constantinople.

912 CE: England - Edward of England begins to reconquer the Danelaw

912 CE: Russia - Death of Oleg, Prince of Novgorod. Igor becomes ruler of Novgorod.

914 CE: Ireland - Vikings invade Ireland again

915 CE: Russia - Beginning of Pecheneg raids in Russia.

918 CE: England - Death of Queen &Aelig;thelflćd of Mercia

924 CE: Bohemia - Wenceslaus becomes ruler of Bohemia

924 CE: England - Death of King Edward Coronation of King Athelstan

927 CE: England - Death of King Sihtric of Northumbria

929 CE: Bohemia - (c) Death of Wenceslaus of Bohemia

930 CE: Bulgaria - (c) Establishment of the Rila monastery

935 CE: England - (c) Dunstan expelled from the court of King Athelstan.

937 CE: England - Battle of Brunanburh

939 CE: England - Death of King Athelstan

940 CE: Ireland - (c) Birth of Brian Boru

941 CE: Russia - Igor of Novgorod attacks Constantinople and is defeated by Greeks.

943 CE: England - Edmund of Wessex appoints Dunstan abbot of Glastonbury.

945 CE: Russia - Commercial treaty between Kiev and Constantinople. Death of Igor, Prince of Novgorod.

946 CE: Bulgaria - Death of John of Rila

954 CE: England - Death of King Eric of Northumbria Union of Northumbria and England (c) Birth of Alphege of Canterbury

955 CE: Egypt - Severus al-Muqaffa completes his study of the ecumenical councils

955 CE: England - Edwy of Wessex exiles Dunstan to Ghent.

955 CE: Russia - Baptism of St. Princess Olga.

956 CE: Bohemia - (c) Birth of Voytech (later Adalbert of Prague)

959 CE: England - King Edgar the Great crowned

960 CE: England - Dunstan becomes archbishop of Canterbury.

961 CE: Italy - John XII appoints Dunstan papal legate to England.

964 CE: Russia - Sviatoslav becomes ruler of Russia.

965 CE: Russia - Sviatoslav defeats the Khazars.

967 CE: Ireland - Battle of Sulchoid, Limerick (defeat of the Vikings by King Ivar)

970 CE: France - Birth of Robert II

970 CE: Russia - St. Prince Vladimir appointed ruler of Novgorod by his father, Sviatoslav.

972 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Cosmos the Priest denounces the Bogomils in Sermon against the Heretics.

972 CE: Egypt - (-975) The caliphate of al-Mu'iz

972 CE: Germany - (c) Birth of Henry II

972 CE: Russia - Death of Sviatoslav of Russia in battle with Pechenegs.

976 CE: England - (-1008) Wulfstan composes a law code for Ethelred II the Unready

977 CE: Ireland - Defeat of the Ui Neill by King Olaf of the Sandals

978 CE: Russia - Birth of Yaroslav the Wise of Russia.

980 CE: Russia - Vladimir becomes ruler of Russia.

982 CE: Bohemia - Adalbert named bishop of Prague

983 CE: Russia - (c) Birth of Anthony of the Kiev Caves

984 CE: England - Alphege of Canterbury appointed bishop of Winchester

986 CE: Russia - Marriage of Vladimir and Princess Anna, sister of Emperor Basil II.

987 CE: Egypt - Severus al-Muqaffa is appointed bishop of al-Ushmunain

987 CE: France - Robert II becomes king

988 CE: Russia - Christianity becomes the official religion of Russia.

989 CE: Russia - Building of the Cathedral of the Tithes in Kiev, the first stone church in Russia.

991 CE: England - Battle of Maldon

996 CE: England - Wulfstan becomes bishop of London

996 CE: France - Death of Hugh Capet

997 CE: Poland - Death of Adalbert of Prague

999 CE: Germany - Marriage of Cunigundis and Henry

1002 CE: England - King Ethelred defeats the Danes (c) Wulfstan becomes bishop of Worcester

1002 CE: Ireland - Brian Boru crowned High King

1003 CE: England - (c) Birth of Edward the Confessor (c) Wulfstan becomes archbishop of York

1004 CE: Italy - Founding of Grottaferata

1005 CE: England - Alphege of Canterbury appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

1005 CE: Italy - Death of Nilus of Rossano

1008 CE: Russia - Formation of the state of Georgia.

1011 CE: England - Danish conquest of southern England

1012 CE: England - Death of Alphege of Canterbury

1013 CE: England - English accept King Sweyn of Denmark as their king

1014 CE: England - Death of King Sweyn of England and Denmark Restoration of King Ethelred of England Publication of Wulfstan's Sermon of the Wolf

1014 CE: Germany - Henry II crowned Holy Roman Emperor

1014 CE: Ireland - (c) Battle of Clontarf, defeat of the Norse; Death of Brian Boru

1014 CE: Italy - First mention of the Frangipani family

1015 CE: Russia - Death of Vladimir of Russia. Murder of the Princes Boris and Gleb of Russia.

1016 CE: England - Battle of Ashington Death of King Edmund

1019 CE: Russia - Yaroslav the Wise becomes ruler of Russia.

1023 CE: England - Death of Wulfstan

1024 CE: Germany - Death of Henry II

1025 CE: Russia - Founding of the Monastery of the Caves at Kiev.

1026 CE: Russia - Yaroslav the Wise and Mstislav the Brave divide Russia between them.

1027 CE: England - Canute's pilgrimage to Rome

1028 CE: Russia - Olaf II of Norway flees to Russia. (c) Anthony of the Kiev Caves leaves to become a monk

1031 CE: England - Canute invades Scotland

1031 CE: France - Death of Robert II

1033 CE: Italy - Anselm is born in Aosta.

1035 CE: England - Death of Canute

1036 CE: Russia - Death of Mstislav the Brave of Russia. Defeat of the Pechenegs. "Russkaya Pravda," first set of laws, issued.

1037 CE: Persia - Death of Avicenna

1039 CE: Russia - Establishment of the Patriarchate of Kiev.

1043 CE: Russia - Yaroslav of Russia attacks Constantinople and is defeated.

1046 CE: Italy - Pope Gregory VI is exiled to Germany.

1047 CE: Scandinavia - Sven II Estridson becomes king of Denmark

1049 CE: Italy - Hildebrand (Gregory VII) accompanies Pope Leo IX to Rome.

1050 CE: Ireland - (c) The Voyages of St. Brendan

1053 CE: England - Harold becomes Earl of Wessex

1054 CE: Russia - Death of Yaroslav the Wise of Russia.

1055 CE: England - Tostig becomes Earl of Northumbria

1056 CE: Germany - (-1106) Henry IV is king of Germany.

1058 CE: Persia - Birth of al-Ghazzali

1060 CE: France - Anselm becomes a monk at Bec.

1061 CE: Italy - Cenzio Frangipani supports the election of Alexander II

1061 CE: Russia - Beginning of Polovtsi (Cuman) raids on Russia.

1063 CE: England - Harold and Tostig defeat the Welsh

1063 CE: France - Anselm is elected prior of Bec.

1066 CE: England - Death of Edward the Confessor Battle of Hastings Coronation of William the Conqueror

1068 CE: England - Exeter rebels against William the Conqueror

1070 CE: England - Lanfranc becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

1073 CE: Russia - Death of Anthony of Kiev

1074 CE: Russia - Death of St. Theodosius of the Kiev Caves.

1075 CE: Italy - Gregory VII writes Dictatus Papae.

1075 CE: Scandinavia - (c) Death of Sven II Estridson of Denmark

1076 CE: Italy - Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV of Germany.

1077 CE: France - Anselm writes the Monologion.

1077 CE: Italy - Henry IV repents and seeks forgiveness from Gregory VII.

1078 CE: France - Anselm is chosen abbot of Bec.

1079 CE: France - Birth of Peter Abelard

1080 CE: Italy - Henry IV of Germany is excommunicated for a second time.

1081 CE: Scandinavia - Canute IV becomes king of Denmark.

1084 CE: Italy - Gregory VII is exiled to Salerno where he dies later the same year. Robert Giscard rescues Gregory VII from Henry V's troops with the help of the Frangipanis

1086 CE: England - Domesday Book Oath of Salisbury establishes feudalism in Britain

1087 CE: England - Death of William the Conqueror; Coronation of William II Rufus; Fire destroys St. Paul's Cathedral, London

1087 CE: Italy - Translation of the relics of St. Nicholas to Bari

1090 CE: Germany - (c) Birth of Jutta of Disibodenburg, instructor of Hildegard of Bingen

1090 CE: Italy - (c) Birth of Pietro Pierleoni

1091 CE: England - Fire destroys Crowland; Monastery at Crowland rebuilt

1092 CE: Persia - Death of Nizam al-Mulk, Seljuk vizier of Baghdad

1093 CE: England - Anselm is consecrated archbishop of Canterbury. Anselm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

1093 CE: Italy - Giovanni Frangipani grants refuges to Urban II as he battles with Antipope Clement III for control of Rome.

1093 CE: Russia - Polovtsi (Cumans) sack Kiev.

1095 CE: Ireland - Birth of St. Malachy O'More

1096 CE: Flanders - Birth of Hugh of St-Victor

1097 CE: England - Anselm leaves Canterbury to go to Rome.

1098 CE: Germany - Birth of Hildegard of Bingen

1098 CE: Italy - The Council of Bari.

1100 CE: England - King Henry I recalls Anselm to Canterbury. Death of William II Rufus; Coronation of Henry I; (c) Birth of Nicholas Breakspear, the only English pope

1106 CE: England - Battle of Tinchebray

1107 CE: England - Synod of Westminster settles the lay investiture dispute in Britain

1108 CE: Italy - Paschal II appoints Leone Frangipani governor of Benvenuto

1109 CE: England - Anselm dies in Canterbury (April 21st). Birth of Aelred of Rievaulx

1110 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Basil the Bogomil burned at the stake in Constantinople

1110 CE: England - (c) Birth of Andrew of St-Victor

1110 CE: Ireland - Synod of Rath Bresail

1111 CE: Persia - Death of al-Ghazzali

1111 CE: Russia - Vladimir Monomakh defeats the Polovtsi (Cumans) at Salnitsa.

1113 CE: Russia - Vladimir Monomakh becomes Grand Prince of Vladimir.

1116 CE: Italy - Paschal II appoints Pietro Pierleoni cardinal

1116 CE: Russia - Compilation of the "Primary Chronicle".

1118 CE: England - Birth of Thomas ŕ Becket

1118 CE: France - Birth of Astrolabe, son of Abelard and Heloďse

1118 CE: Italy - Cardinal Pierleoni travels with Gelasius II into exile in France

1120 CE: England - Death of Prince William, Henry I's only legitimate son

1121 CE: France - Council of Soissons condemns Abelard's work on the Trinity

1123 CE: Ireland - Completion of the Cross of Cong

1125 CE: Russia - Death of Vladimir Monomakh, Grand Prince of Vladimir. Mstislav becomes Grand Prince of Vladimir.

1126 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Translation of the relics of St. Agatha from Constantinople to Catania.

1126 CE: Spain - Birth of Averroës

1127 CE: France - Theobald of Canterbury becomes prior at Bec

1128 CE: England - Death of William Clito, grandson of William the Conqueror

1129 CE: France - Epidemic of argot-poisoning afflicts Paris.

1130 CE: France - Council of Étampes confirms the election of Anacletus II

1130 CE: Italy - Cardinal Pierleoni elected Pope Anacletus II on the same day that Cardinal Paraschi is elected Pope Innocent II

1131 CE: England - Founding of the monastery at Rievaulx

1132 CE: Ireland - Malachy O'More becomes Bishop of Armagh

1132 CE: Italy - Lothair II captures most of Rome and installs Innocent II as pope; Anacletus II is reinstated after the emperor's army leaves.

1132 CE: Russia - Death of Mstislav, Grand Prince of Vladimir. Yaropolk becomes Grand Prince of Vladimir.

1133 CE: Germany - (c) Death of Cunigundis

1134 CE: Italy - Giotto appointed Surveyor-general of the cathedral in Florence Council of Pisa excommunicates Anacletus II

1135 CE: England - Death of King Henry I; Coronation of King Stephen of Blois

1136 CE: Italy - (-1137) Lothair II's second expedition against Anacletus II erodes his popular support

1136 CE: Russia - Expulsion of the Grand Prince of Novgorod. Establishment of the "veche," or town assembly.

1137 CE: France - Theobald of Canterbury becomes abbot of Bec

1138 CE: England - Theobald of Canterbury becomes archbishop of Canterbury

1138 CE: Italy - Death of Anacletus II

1139 CE: England - Queen Matilda arrives in Britain to claim the throne

1139 CE: Italy - Arnold of Brescia banished

1139 CE: Russia - Death of Yaropolk, Grand Prince of Vladimir.

1141 CE: England - Battle of Lincoln Theobald of Canterbury crowns Stephen of Blois king of England

1141 CE: France - Death of Hugh of St-Victor Council of Sens condemns Peter Abelard

1141 CE: Germany - (-1151) Publication of Scivias by Hildegard of Bingen

1142 CE: France - Death of Abelard

1142 CE: Ireland - Founding of Mellifont, the first Cistercian monastery in Ireland

1143 CE: England - Founding of the monastery at Revesby

1145 CE: Italy - (-1153) Eugenius III is Pope. Eugenius III appeals for a second crusade.

1146 CE: France - King Louis VII rallies support for the Second Crusade.

1147 CE: Asia Minor - Conrad III moves troops across Europe to Constantinople for the Second Crusade.

1147 CE: England - (c) Founding of the Victorine monastery at Wigmore, Herefordshire. Andrew of St-Victor is its first abbot. He returns to France after problems with the monks.

1147 CE: Germany - Hildegard moves her community to Rupertsberg

1148 CE: England - Theobald of Canterbury sails to France for a synod at Rheims against the wishes of Stephen, who exiles him.

1148 CE: France - Death of St. Malachy O'More

1148 CE: Italy - Eugenius III returns to Rome after touring Western Europe in an effort to gain prestige for the papacy. Eugene III puts England under interdict

1150 CE: Ireland - First papal legate arrives

1150 CE: Italy - (c) Eugene III names Theobald of Canterbury a papal legate

1151 CE: Russia - Birth of Igor Sviatoslavich.

1152 CE: Ireland - Synod of Kells

1152 CE: Italy - Frederick Barbarrossa puts down the Roman commune

1152 CE: Scandinavia - Nicholas Breakspear appoints Henry of Uppsala bishop of Sweden

1153 CE: England - Treaty of Winchester names Henry of Anjou heir to Stephen

1153 CE: Italy - Eugenius III dies.

1154 CE: England - Death of Stephen of Blois; Coronation of King Henry II;

1154 CE: Italy - Election of Nicholas Breakspear to the papacy as Adrian IV

1155 CE: England - Thomas ŕ Becket becomes Chancellor of England

1155 CE: Italy - Death of Arnold of Brescia

1156 CE: Russia - Construction of Moscow's city wall.

1156 CE: Scandinavia - Death of Henry of Uppsala

1157 CE: Italy - Death of William the Great

1159 CE: England - John of Salisbury completes Metalogicon

1159 CE: Italy - Death of Pope Adrian IV, the only English pope

1160 CE: Italy - (c) Innocent III is born in Gavignano as Lothair of Segni.

1161 CE: England - Death of Theobald of Canterbury (-1175) Andrew of St-Victor abbot of Wigmore

1162 CE: England - Thomas ŕ Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

1162 CE: Italy - Translation of the relics of Monica from Ostia to Arrouaise

1163 CE: England - Publication of John of Salisbury's Historica pontificalis

1164 CE: England - Council of Clarendon

1164 CE: Ireland - Completion of Clonfert Cathedral in County Galway

1165 CE: Italy - A council at Lombers condemns the Albigenses

1166 CE: England - Assize of Clarendon

1167 CE: England - Death of St. Aelred of Rievaulx

1167 CE: France - Harrad becomes abbess of Mt. Ste-Odile. Albigenses set up a federation of communities and a church structure of their own.

1169 CE: Ireland - Normans land at Bannow Bay, County Wexford

1169 CE: Russia - Andrei Bogolubski, the Suzdal prince, captures Kiev.

1170 CE: England - Death of Thomas ŕ Becket; Inquest of the Sheriffs

1170 CE: Germany - (c) Death of Gerlac of Holland

1170 CE: Spain - Founding of the military order of Santiago

1171 CE: England - English conquest of Ireland

1171 CE: Ireland - Henry II of England invades Ireland

1171 CE: Russia - Completion of the Church of the Intercession of the Theotokos near Vladimir.

1171 CE: Spain - Averroës becomes kadi of Córdoba

1173 CE: France - Death of Richard of St-Victor

1173 CE: Italy - Canonization of St. Thomas a Becket

1173 CE: Palestine - Death of Euphrosyne of Polotsk

1174 CE: England - Henry II does penance for the death of Becket

1174 CE: Italy - The Frangipani help to liberate Ancona from the Germans

1174 CE: Russia - Death of Andrei Bogolubski, Prince of Kiev.

1175 CE: England - Treaty of Windsor between English and Irish Death of Andrew of St-Victor

1175 CE: France - (c) Completion of De planctu naturae (Nature's Plaint) by Alain de Lille

1175 CE: Ireland - Treaty of Windsor between the English and Irish

1176 CE: England - Assize of Northampton

1176 CE: Russia - Vsevolod III (of the Large Nest) becomes Grand Prince of Kiev.

1177 CE: Russia - Burning of Moscow by Prince Gleb of Riazan.

1179 CE: Germany - Death of Hildegard of Bingen

1179 CE: Italy - Third Lateran Council

1180 CE: Balkans - (c) Stephen Nemanja begins to suppress the Bogomils in Serbia

1180 CE: England - Death of John of Salisbury

1181 CE: England - Assize of Arms

1183 CE: England - Death of Prince Henry, son of King Henry II

1184 CE: Italy - Council of Verona condemns the followers of Arnold of Brescia The Council of Verona condemns the Albigenses

1185 CE: Russia - Defeat of Igor Sviatoslavich by Polovtsi (Cumans). (This battle is the basis of "The Song of Igor's Campaign").

1187 CE: Russia - (c) Composition of "The Song of Igor's Campaign".

1188 CE: Germany - The gender of the novice Philip is discovered when Hildegund of Schönau dies.

1189 CE: England - Death of Henry II. Coronation of Richard I the Lion-hearted

1190 CE: England - See of Ely established

1190 CE: Italy - Canonization of St. Malachy O'More

1193 CE: England - Rebellion of John Lackland against King Richard I

1195 CE: Africa - Averroës accused of heresy

1195 CE: Spain - Birth of Anthony of Padua

1198 CE: Africa - Death of Averroës

1198 CE: Italy - Innocent III is elected Pope (January 8th).

1199 CE: England - Death of King Richard I the Lion-hearted. Coronation of King John

1199 CE: Italy - Innocent III writes Vergentis, which makes heresy an act of treason.

1200 CE: Russia - (c) Dobrynia Jadresjkovich takes a pilgrimage from Russia to Constantinople; his Pilgrim's Book describes the city and its churches.

1202 CE: Russia - Death of Igor Sviatoslavich.

1203 CE: France - Death of Alain de Lille

1208 CE: France - (-1224) The Albigensian Crusade. The murder of Peter of Castelnau leads to a crusade against the Albigenses Massacre at Béziers

1209 CE: England - King John is excommunicated by Innocent III. Founding of Cambridge University

1211 CE: Balkans - A Bulgarian synod convoked by Tsar Boril condemns the Bogomils.

1211 CE: Russia - Dobrynia Jadresjkovich elected archbishop of Novgorod; his monastic name is Anthony.

1212 CE: Russia - Death of Vsevolod III, Grand Prince of Kiev.

1213 CE: France - Peter of Aragon defeated at the Battle of Muret

1215 CE: England - The Magna Carta Death of Jocelin of Brakelond

1215 CE: Italy - The Fourth Lateran Council is held in Rome. The Fourth Lateran Council condemns the Albigenses Honorius III approves the establishment of the Order of Friars Preachers, the Dominicans

1216 CE: England - Death of King John. Coronation of King Henry III

1219 CE: France - French seize Toulouse and Langudoc.

1220 CE: Italy - First General Chapter of the Dominicans

1220 CE: Russia - (c) Birth of Alexander Nevski.

1221 CE: Italy - General Chapter of Assisi establishes new rule for the Franciscans

1223 CE: Russia - Mongols win the Battle of the River Kalka against the Russians.

1224 CE: France - Anthony of Padua preaches against the Albigeneses

1224 CE: Italy - Thomas Aquinas is born in Roccasecca.

1228 CE: Russia - Anthony of Novgorod resigns the see of Novgorod and retires to Khutyn

1231 CE: Italy - Death of Anthony of Padua

1231 CE: Russia - Death of Anthony of Novgorod

1233 CE: Italy - Gregory IX allows the Inquisition to suppress the Albigenses

1234 CE: Italy - Gregory IX canonizes Dominic

1235 CE: Italy - Boniface VIII is born as Benedetto Gaetani. Birth of Nicholas of Tolentino

1236 CE: England - Marriage of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

1236 CE: Russia - Alexander Nevski elected Prince of Novgorod.

1237 CE: Russia - Beginning of Mongol invasion led by Batu Khan.

1240 CE: Russia - Alexander Nevski defeats the Swedes at the Neva Mongols take Kiev.

1241 CE: Germany - (c) Birth of Mechtilde of Hackeborn

1242 CE: Russia - Alexander Nevski defeats the Teutonic Knights near Pskov. Establishment of the Khanate of the Golden Horde.

1243 CE: Italy - Thomas Aquinas joins the Dominican order.

1244 CE: France - Destruction of Montségnur

1246 CE: Russia - Alexander Nevski made Prince of Kiev. Death of Yaroslav II.

1250 CE: Italy - Thomas Aquinas is ordained a priest.

1252 CE: France - Thomas Aquinas teaches at the University of Paris.

1255 CE: Russia - Alexander Nevski vanquishes a revolt at Novgorod against his son, Vassily, whom he installed as Prince of Novgorod.

1256 CE: Germany - (c) Birth of Gertrude the Great

1257 CE: Russia - Alexander Nevski vanquishes revolt against the Mongols.

1258 CE: England - The Barons War begins

1258 CE: France - (-1260) Thomas Aquinas writes the Summa contra Gentiles.

1259 CE: Italy - Thomas Aquinas summoned to Rome to be an advisor and lecturer to the papal court.

1262 CE: Russia - Alexander Nevski negotiates with Mongols to exempt Russians from the draft.

1263 CE: Ireland - Irish seek the aid of Haakon II of Norway against the Normans

1263 CE: Russia - Death of Alexander Nevski.

1264 CE: England - Victory of Simon de Montfort at Lewes
Death of Simon de Montfort at Evesham

1264 CE: Ireland - First recorded session of the Irish Parliament

1265 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Birth of St. Gregory the Sinaite

1265 CE: England - End of the Barons War in Britain

1267 CE: Italy - (-1273) Thomas Aquinas writes the Summa Theologiae.

1270 CE: Ireland - Defeat of the Anglo-Irish in Connacht

1270 CE: Italy - (c) Birth of Andrea Pisano

1272 CE: England - Death of Henry III. Coronation of Edward I

1272 CE: Italy - Thomas Aquinas organizes a Dominican school in Naples.

1274 CE: Italy - Thomas Aquinas dies in Fossanova (March 7th).

1275 CE: England - First Statute of Westminster, a supplement to English common law

1277 CE: England - Treaty of Conway between the English and Welsh

1280 CE: Russia - Daniel becomes Prince of Moscow.

1285 CE: England - (c) Birth of William of Ockham.

1290 CE: England - Expulsion of the Jews

1294 CE: England - Death of Roger Bacon

1294 CE: Italy - Boniface VIII elected as Pope.

1295 CE: England - The Model Parliament

1296 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Birth of Gregory Palamas

1296 CE: Italy - Boniface VIII issues the Clericis Laicos.

1297 CE: England - Possible discovery of the grave of St. Alban

1297 CE: Italy - Boniface VIII canonizes Louis IX.

1298 CE: Italy - Boniface VIII publishes the Liber Sextus.

1299 CE: Germany - (c) Death of Mechtilde of Hackeborn

1301 CE: France - Philip IV imprisons the bishop of Saisset for treason.

1302 CE: France - Philip IV unites France against Boniface VIII.

1302 CE: Germany - Death of Duns Scotus Death of Gertrude the Great

1302 CE: Italy - Boniface VIII calls a synod to consider reforming the French Church.

1303 CE: Italy - Boniface VIII issued In Supremae Praeeminetia Dignaitatis and founded the University of Rome. Boniface VIII is captured in the palace of Anagni by soldiers of Philip IV; he dies later the same year.

1303 CE: Russia - Death of Daniel, Prince of Moscow. Yuri becomes Grand Prince of Moscow.

1303 CE: Scandinavia - (c) Birth of Bridget of Sweden

1305 CE: Italy - Death of Nicholas of Tolentino

1307 CE: England - Death of Edward I. Coronation of Edward II

1311 CE: France - Benedict XII becomes abbot of Fontfroide.

1314 CE: England - Battle of Bannockburn

1315 CE: Ireland - Edward Bruce of Scotland invades Ireland

1316 CE: Russia - Gedemin, King of Lithuania, tries to capture Russia.

1317 CE: France - Benedict XII becomes bishop of Pamiers.

1318 CE: Ireland - Defeat of the Normans in Munster; Death of Edward Bruce

1318 CE: Russia - Yuri becomes Grand Prince of Vladimir.

1319 CE: Russia - Death of Michael of Tver.

1322 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Birth of Nicholas Cabasilas

1322 CE: Russia - Death of Yuri, Grand Prince of Vladimir. Ivan I (Kalita [moneybags]) becomes Grand Prince of Vladimir. Dmitri Yurovich becomes Grand Duke of Moscow.

1326 CE: France - Benedict XII becomes bishop of Mirepoix.

1326 CE: Russia - Death of Metropolitan Peter.

1327 CE: England - Death of Edward II
Coronation of Edward III

1327 CE: France - Benedict XII becomes a cardinal.

1328 CE: England - Birth of John Wycliffe

1328 CE: France - John XXII excommunicates William of Ockham.

1328 CE: Russia - Ivan I becomes ruler of Russia. Beginning of Moscow's political dominance.

1330 CE: England - (c) Birth of John Gower

1331 CE: Scandinavia - (c) Birth of Catherine of Sweden

1332 CE: England - Normans rebuild St. Paul's Cathedral, London

1334 CE: France - Death of John XXII.

1335 CE: France - (-1342) Benedict XII is Pope.

1336 CE: France - Benedict XII writes Benedictus Deus (January 29th).

1337 CE: England - Hundred Years' War begins

1337 CE: Italy - Death of Giotto Death of Guglielmo Frangipani, archbishop of Patras Andrea Pisano succeeds Giotto as chief architect of the Campanile, Florence

1340 CE: Russia - Founding of the Holy Trinity Monastery near Moscow.

1341 CE: Russia - Death of Ivan I. Simeon the Proud becomes ruler of Russia.

1342 CE: France - Benedict XII dies.

1343 CE: England - (c) Birth of Chaucer

1345 CE: Scandinavia - (c) Marriage of Catherine of Sweden and Eggard von Kürnen

1346 CE: Bulgaria - Death of St. Gregory the Sinaite

1346 CE: France - Battle of Crecy

1346 CE: Scandinavia - Vadstena founded

1347 CE: Germany - (c) Death of William of Ockham.

1347 CE: Italy - Andrea Pisano appointed chief architect of the cathedral at Orvieto

1348 CE: England - (-1349) Outbreak of the Black Death

1348 CE: Italy - (c) Death of Andrea Pisano

1348 CE: Russia - Pskov wins freedom from Novgorod.

1351 CE: England - Statute of Labors (wage freeze)

1352 CE: Russia - The Black Death reaches Russia.

1353 CE: Russia - Death of Simeon the Proud. Ivan II (the Red) becomes ruler of Russia. The Black Death reaches Moscow.

1355 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Birth of Georgius Gemistus Plethon

1359 CE: Greece - Death of Gregory Palamas

1359 CE: Russia - Death of Ivan II (the Red) of Russia. Dmitri Donskoi becomes ruler of Russia.

1360 CE: Russia - (c) Birth of Andrei Rublev

1366 CE: Ireland - Statutes of Kilkenny (no contact between English & Irish in Ireland)

1370 CE: England - Ordination of Nicholas of Hereford

1370 CE: Italy - (c) Birth of Erasmo di Narno

1370 CE: Russia - Teutonic Knights capture Lithuania. Seige of Moscow by Olgerd of Lithuania.

1373 CE: Italy - Death of Bridget of Sweden

1375 CE: England - (c) Wycliffe's Treatises

1376 CE: England - Death of Edward, the Black Prince
The Good Parliament
Death of Edward III

1377 CE: England - Coronation of Richard II

1379 CE: England - John Wycliffe denies transubstantiation

1380 CE: England - Condemnation of John Wycliffe

1380 CE: Russia - Defeat of the Mongols at Kulikovo.

1381 CE: England - Peasants' Revolt; Death of Wat Tyler

1381 CE: Scandinavia - Death of Catherine of Sweden

1382 CE: England - First translation of the Bible into English A council at London condemns Nicholas of Hereford

1384 CE: England - Death of John Wycliffe

1386 CE: Russia - Union of Lithuania and Poland.

1388 CE: England - Richard II orders the works of Nicholas of Hereford seized.

1389 CE: Italy - Boniface IX confirms the feast of the Visitation.

1389 CE: Russia - Vassily I becomes ruler of Russia.

1390 CE: England - Publication of Confessio amantis by John Gower (c) The Canterbury Tales

1390 CE: Russia - Tamerlane begins to attack the Mongols in Russia.

1391 CE: Asia Minor - (c) Death of Nicholas Cabasilas

1391 CE: England - Nicholas of Hereford recants and is named inquistor against the Lollards.

1392 CE: Russia - Death of St. Sergius of Radonezh.

1394 CE: England - Richard II invades Ireland

1394 CE: Ireland - Richard II of England invades Ireland

1395 CE: Russia - Tamerlane stops attacks on Russia.

1399 CE: England - Richard II's second invasion of Ireland; Death of Richard II; Coronation of Henry IV; Repression of the Lollards begins

1399 CE: Ireland - Richard II of England invades Ireland for the second time

1400 CE: England - Death of Chaucer

1400 CE: France - (c) Limbourgh Brothers apprenticed to a Parisian goldsmith.

1400 CE: Italy - (c) Birth of Fra. Angelico (c) Birth of Stefano di Giovanni (Sassetta)

1401 CE: England - Burning of Heretics Act

1401 CE: Italy - Birth of Masaccio

1404 CE: Russia - Vitovt of Lithuania takes Smolensk.

1405 CE: Italy - Pius II is born in Corignano as Enea Silvio Piccolomini.

1406 CE: Italy - (c) Birth of Fra. Lippo Lippi

1408 CE: Russia - Seige of Moscow by Edigei the Tatar.

1410 CE: Russia - Defeat of Teutonic Knights at Tannenberg by the Kingdom of Lithuania-Poland.

1411 CE: Russia - Painting of Trinity Icon by St. Andrei Rublev.

1413 CE: England - Death of Henry IV; Coronation of Henry V

1414 CE: England - End of Lollard rebellion led by Sir John Oldcastle

1415 CE: England - Battle of Agincourt

1417 CE: England - Execution of Sir John Oldcastle (c) Nicholas of Hereford becomes a Carthusian. He is thought to have died the same year.

1420 CE: Italy - (c) Fra. Lippo Lippi professed at the monastery of Sta. Maria del Carmine.

1422 CE: England - Death of Henry V; Coronation of Henry VI

1422 CE: Italy - (c) Fra. Angelico enters the monastery at San Marco (c) Masaccio moves to Florence

1424 CE: Italy - (-1428) Masaccio, Masolino, and Fra. Lippo Lippi paint frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel of Sta. Maria del Carmine in Florence.

1425 CE: Russia - Death of Vassily I of Russia. Vassily II (the Dark) becomes ruler of Russia.

1427 CE: Italy - Bolognese rebel against papal control

1428 CE: Asia Minor - Georgius Gemistus Plethon becomes an advisor to John VIII, Palćologos

1428 CE: Italy - (c) Death of Masaccio

1429 CE: France - Charles VII crowned king

1430 CE: Italy - Translation of the relics of Monica from Arrouaise to Rome Translation of the relics of Monica from Arrouaise to Rome

1430 CE: Russia - Death of St. Andrei Rublev.

1431 CE: England - Second Lollard Rebellion

1431 CE: France - Death of Joan of Arc

1434 CE: England - Establishment of the cult of St. Frideswide at Oxford

1434 CE: Italy - (-1441) Venice and Milan war for control of northern Italy Fra. Lippo Lippi works in Padua. (Paintings now lost).

1437 CE: Italy - Fra. Lippo Lippi returns to Florence.

1439 CE: Italy - (c) Cosimo de' Medici establishes the Platonic Academy of Florence

1439 CE: Russia - Russian Orthodox church becomes autocephalous. Russian Orthodox repudiate the Council of Florence. Imprisonment of Metropolitan Isidore.

1440 CE: England - Founding of Eton

1441 CE: England - Founding of King's College, Cambridge

1442 CE: Italy - Fra. Lippo Lippi appointed rector of S. Quirico at Legnaia.

1443 CE: Italy - Death of Erasmo di Narno

1445 CE: Italy - Fra. Angelico travels to Rome to work for Eugene IV.

1447 CE: Italy - Birth of Catherine Fieschi

1450 CE: Balkans - Christianity reasserts itself as the national religion of Bosnia, where the Bogomils had been strongly identified with nationalism.

1450 CE: England - Cade's Rebellion

1450 CE: Greece - (c) Death of Georgius Gemistus Plethon

1450 CE: Italy - (c) Death of Stefano di Giovanni (Sassetta)

1453 CE: England - End of the Hundred Years' War

1455 CE: England - Beginning of the War of the Roses

1455 CE: Italy - Death of Fra. Angelico

1456 CE: Italy - Callixtus III clears Joan of Arc of heresy charges Elopement of Fra. Lippo Lippi and Lucrezia Buti.

1457 CE: Italy - (c) Birth of Filippino Lippi

1458 CE: Italy - Pius II is elected Pope.

1461 CE: England - Defeat of Lancastrians at Mortimer's Cross and at Towton Moor; Edward, Earl of March, crowned Edward IV

1461 CE: Italy - Pius II releases Fra. Lippo Lippi and his wife from their monastic vows.

1462 CE: Russia - Death of Vassily II (the Dark) of Russia. Ivan III (the Great) becomes ruler of Russia.

1463 CE: Balkans - Turks conquer Bosnia

1463 CE: Italy - Pius II proclaims the Crusade against the Turks. Marriage of Catherine Fieschi and Giuliano Adorno

1463 CE: Russia - Annexation of Yaroslav.

1464 CE: Italy - Pius II dies in Ancona (August 14th).

1466 CE: Italy - Death of Donatello

1467 CE: Italy - Fra. Lippo Lippi begins work painting the interior of the cathedral at Spoleto.

1469 CE: Italy - Death of Fra. Lippo Lippi

1470 CE: England - Depostion of Edward IV; Restoration of Henry VI

1471 CE: England - Defeat of Lancastrians at Barnet and at Tewkesbury; Death of Henry VI; Restoration of Edward IV

1472 CE: Russia - Defeat and annexation of Perm.

1474 CE: Russia - Annexation of Rostov.

1476 CE: England - William Caxton operates first printing press in Britain

1478 CE: Russia - Defeat and annexation of Novgorod. Ivan III refuses to pay tribute to the Mongols.

1479 CE: Russia - Completion of the Cathedral of the Annunciatioin in Moscow.

1482 CE: Balkans - Turks conquer Herzogivina

1483 CE: England - Death of Edward IV; Coronation of Richard III

1485 CE: England - Battle of Bosworth Field; Death of Richard III; Coronation of Henry VII

1485 CE: Russia - Defeat and annexation of Tver.

1490 CE: Italy - Catherine Fieschi becomes the director of the Pammetone Hospital in Genoa

1491 CE: Russia - Completion of the Palace of the Facets at the Kremlin, Moscow.

1492 CE: Russia - Ivan III declares Moscow the new Constantinople.

1494 CE: Flanders - Death of Hans Memling

1497 CE: Italy - Death of Giuliano Adorno

1497 CE: Russia - Law Code of Ivan III promulgated (includes "Russkaya Pravda" and Pskov's "Sudebnik"). Russia declared the Third Rome.

1499 CE: Russia - Kremlin becomes the residence of the Tsar


Copyright © 1995, Anthony F. Beavers. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents,
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